CKA & CKAD Certification and Confidentiality Agreement
Published: July 2018
Table of contents
- Confidentiality and Intellectual Property Ownership
- Intellectual Property Ownership
- Certification Requirements
- Certification Period
- Program Changes
- Certification Revocation
- Certification of Minors
- Use Of “Cloud Native Computing Foundation Certified” Trademark(s)
- Candidate ID and Consent to Photo, Video and Audio Recording
- Exam Rules and Policies
- Testing Location Policy
- Rules During Exam
- Policy on Warnings and Exam Terminations
- Policy on Tools and Resources During Exam
- Exam Misconduct Policy
- Accuracy and Integrity of Examination Process
- Special Needs
- Professional Code of Conduct
- Exam Misconduct and Professional Code of Conduct Violations
- Term and Termination
- Termination for Convenience
- Termination By The Linux Foundation
- Notice of termination
- Effect of Termination
- Limitation of Liability
- Privacy and Delivery of Certification Information to Third Parties
- Waiver and Modification
- Controlling Law and Jurisdiction
- Entire Agreement
Cloud Native Computing Foundation Certification and Confidentiality Agreement
The Cloud Native Computing Foundation (“CNCF”) is a project of The Linux Foundation. This Agreement is entered into between you and the The Linux Foundation as of the date of your exam registration (the “Effective Date”), and sets forth, among other provisions, your requirements with respect to certain certification exams involving CNCF offered by The Linux Foundation
For good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which is hereby acknowledged, The Linux Foundation and you agree as follows:
1.1 “Certification(s)” means any professional certification programs offered by The Linux Foundation on behalf of CNCF.
1.2 “Program(s)” means the Certification programs offered by The Linux Foundation on behalf of CNCF under this Agreement.
1.3 “Exam Proctoring Partner” means the entity engaged by The Linux Foundation to administer the applicable examination.
1.4 “Mark” means one of the trademarks and logos related to CNCF Certification of the form “Certified Kubernetes ___________,” such as “Certified Kubernetes Administrator” or “Certified Kubernetes Application Developer.”
1.5 “Examination” or “Exams” means a test provided by The Linux Foundation, possibly through an Exam Proctoring Partner, which is used to determine whether to issue Certification(s).
2. Confidentiality and Intellectual Property Ownership
The Linux Foundation makes exams available to you solely to test your knowledge of the exam subject matter for which you seek Certification. You are expressly prohibited from disclosing, publishing, reproducing, or transmitting any exam and any related information including, without limitation, questions, answers, worksheets, computations, drawings, diagrams, length or number of exam segments or questions, or any communication, including oral communication, regarding or related to the exam (known collectively as “Confidential Information”), in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, oral or written, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose. Confidential Information includes the contents of the exam, which may not be disclosed as set forth above, including to any employee of The Linux Foundation not affiliated with the CNCF Certification Program. A disclosure of Confidential Information by any means in violation of this Agreement undermines the integrity and security of the Program. Information relating to current or future versions of Kubernetes system components, or other materials that are made available under an open source license, is not considered Confidential Information under this Agreement.
2.2 Intellectual Property Ownership
Examination Materials are the proprietary, confidential and copyrighted materials of The Linux Foundation (except open source materials incorporated therein, which may have other copyright holders and are used pursuant to the applicable open source license). Violators of copyright law are subject to injunctions, civil liability, forfeiture of profits, punitive damages and other legal sanctions. The Linux Foundation will take appropriate legal action against you to protect The Linux Foundation’s rights if you breach the provisions of this Section.
3.1 Certification Requirements
Certification is based upon a candidate meeting the minimum requirements of the Program, including achieving passing scores on required examinations in accordance with The Linux Foundation’s testing guidelines. If you meet these requirements you will receive a certificate from The Linux Foundation signifying your accomplishment. Program requirements for Certification and renewal of Certification are available on the CNCF website at https://www.cncf.io/certification/expert/ and include the requirements set forth in this Agreement.
Certification is only available for natural persons, not corporations or other legal entities. Should the candidate misuse any certificate or Mark, appropriate action may be taken in The Linux Foundation’s sole discretion to resolve the case and prevent recurrence. You agree to comply with all of The Linux Foundation’s requests and demands from time to time regarding your use of the Marks. Misuse may give rise to Certifications being withdrawn and legal action being taken in The Linux Foundation’s sole discretion. (Use of Marks is defined in Section 3.6.)
3.2 Certification Period
Certifications expire 24 months from the date that the Program certification requirements are met by a candidate. Candidates must meet Certification renewal requirements prior to the expiration date of their certification in order to maintain active certification. If Certification renewal requirements are not met before the expiration date, Certification will be deemed revoked without further action by The Linux Foundation and this Agreement shall terminate effective as of the expiration date, subject to the provisions of Section 12.3.
3.3 Program Changes
The Linux Foundation may, in its sole discretion, change the Program without notice. Such changes may include, without limitation, adding or deleting available Certifications and modifying Certification requirements, testing objectives, outlines, recommended training courses, and exams. It is your responsibility to keep informed of any such modifications and if applicable, to complete new requirements for maintaining and/or renewing Certification. If any CNCF Certification requirements are modified, this Agreement and your CNCF Certification may be terminated by The Linux Foundation without further notice, unless you adhere to any applicable CNCF Certification requirements.
3.4 Certification Revocation
The Linux Foundation may revoke any Certification if you fail to comply with Certification renewal requirements or other Certification requirements. In addition, The Linux Foundation may, in its sole discretion, revoke any and all Certifications you may have earned and permanently ban you from earning future Certifications under any of the following circumstances:
- If you use profanity, threaten to harm, bully or in any way harass any employee or contractor of The Linux Foundation or any Exam Proctoring Partner (whether verbally or in writing, including through electronic communications or external web postings);
- If you breach the terms and conditions of this Agreement;
- If The Linux Foundation determines, in its sole discretion pursuant to Section 6, that you have undertaken or participated in Exam Misconduct as defined in Section 4.3 or violated the Professional Code of Conduct as defined in Section 5;
- If you have been convicted of a crime that The Linux Foundation deems, in its sole discretion, in any way harms or affects the reputation, goodwill or security of The Linux Foundation, CNCF or the Program; or
- If you have lost or settled a civil case in which The Linux Foundation is the plaintiff and the claim arose from any alleged damage to The Linux Foundation, its brand, goodwill or reputation or the brand, goodwill or reputation of any project of The Linux Foundation including CNCF.
3.5 Certification of Minors
If you are under the age of 18 years old, you are not eligible for testing or Certification. The Linux Foundation reserves the right to impose additional restrictions to comply with local data protection laws.
3.6 Use Of “Certified Kubernetes Administrator” or “Certified Kubernetes Application Developer” Trademark(s)
If you successfully pass an Exam and receive written indication from The Linux Foundation that you may use the Mark corresponding to the Exam, then The Linux Foundation grants you a nonexclusive revocable license to use that Mark for the purpose of indicating that you have achieved the Certification. This license will terminate immediately (a) upon a breach of any of the material terms of this Agreement, (b) upon termination of this Agreement, or (c) if The Linux Foundation notifies you of a violation of the rules regarding your use of the Mark and within seven days, in the sole discretion of The Linux Foundation, such violation of the rules is not corrected. The rules are:
- You shall not use the Mark for any purpose other than to indicate your status as having been Certified.
- The only person to use the mark will be you in your capacity as an individual; you will not allow its use by any other person or legal entity on your behalf.
- You agree that your use of the Mark may be terminated at any time if, in the sole discretion of The Linux Foundation, The Linux Foundation determines that you are in breach of this agreement.
- You agree to only use the Mark in the form provided to you by The Linux Foundation, and not to modify the color, text, proportions or other aspects of the Mark except for the size, which may be adjusted in even proportion.
- You agree not to take any action that might injure the brand image and/or goodwill embodied in the Mark, or in any other marks owned or licensed by The Linux Foundation, including without limitation the “Kubernetes” or “Cloud Native Computing Foundation” trademarks.
- You agree not to make partial or entire use of the Mark as part of your own name or business name, and will not combine the Mark with any other of your marks or logos.
- You agree that all right, title, and interest in the Mark shall remain with The Linux Foundation and that all use of the Mark by you will inure to the benefit of The Linux Foundation. You agree not to challenge the ownership or any other rights of The Linux Foundation in the Mark, or other marks licensed or owned by The Linux Foundation, including without limitation “Kubernetes” and “the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.”
- You will not file in any application or registration for any trademark that is similar or identical to the Mark or to any other marks owned by The Linux Foundation.
- You will abide by The Linux Foundation Trademark Usage Guidelines set forth on the Linux Foundation’s website at https://www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage, as modified from time to time, with regards to all of your use of the Mark.
4.1 Candidate ID and Consent to Photo, Video and Audio Recording
Candidates are required to provide government-issued photo identification containing their photo and their full name in the Latin alphabet before the Exam can be launched. Acceptable forms of photo ID include current, non-expired: passport, government issued driver’s license/permit, national identity card, state- or province-issued identity card, or other form of government issued identification. If acceptable proof of identification is not provided to the exam proctor prior to the exam, entry to the exam will be refused. Candidates who are refused entry due to lack of sufficient ID will not be eligible for a refund or rescheduling. Candidates consent to the sharing of their personal information with the Exam Proctor and The Linux Foundation.
Candidates must consent to having their photo taken and may be required to scan their government issued identification for the exam Proctoring Partner. These will be used for identity verification only and are not retained for any other purpose.
In addition, live audio and video of a candidate’s testing session will be streamed to a remote proctor and may be stored for future reference.
4.2 Exam Rules and Policies
Candidates must start their exam no later than 15 minutes after the scheduled start time. If a candidate does not start their exam within 15 minutes of the scheduled start time, they will be automatically marked as a no-show and no refund or rescheduling will be allowed.
Candidates must also comply with the following rules and policies during the Exam, and the Proctor cannot release the Exam until the Candidate has indicated that they have read, understood and accept these rules and policies:
Testing Location Policy
- Room must be quiet, private and well lit
- Bright lights or windows should not be positioned behind the Candidate
- Testing from public spaces such as coffee shops, stores, etc. is not allowed
- No one other than the Candidate can be present in the room
- Desk must be clear of all notes and electronics
Rules During Exam
- Candidate should review the Exam content instructions that are presented in the command line terminal; candidate can also type “man lf_exam” in the command line to view instructions again at any time during the exam
- Candidate is not allowed to communicate with anyone other than the Proctor during the Exam.
- No other person may be in the exam room with the Candidate during the exam.
- Candidate is not allowed to leave their desk or step out of view of the webcam, unless he/she has been granted specific permission by the Proctor.
- Candidate is not allowed to eat, drink, or chew gum (Tip: request a break if you are needing a drink)
- Candidate is not allowed to wear any electronic device in their ears, on their face or on their body.*
- Candidates may use their Chrome or Chromium browser to open one additional tab in order to access assets on the kubernetes.io domain for reference during the exam. No other tabs may be opened, no other sites may be navigated to, and only kubernetes.io assets may be accessed. The allowed sites above may contain links that point to external sites. It is the responsibility of the candidate not to click on any links that cause them to navigate to a domain that is not allowed.
- Candidate is not allowed to look away from their Exam console screen for extended periods of time.
- Candidate must refrain from making excessive and/or repetitive noise .
- Candidate is not allowed to write or enter input on anything (whether paper, electronic device, etc.) outside of the Exam console screen.
- Candidates must comply with any requests from the Proctor. If Candidate fails to comply, the Exam will be terminated.
*unless medically necessary
Policy on Warnings and Exam Terminations
Certain kinds of violations will result in a warning from the Proctor, while certain other violations result in IMMEDIATE TERMINATION OF THE EXAM WITHOUT WARNING.
- If a warning is issued by the Proctor, the Exam will be paused until the Candidate is able to amend or resolve the observed violation.
- If a Candidate is found to be in violation of the same rule more than twice or is found to be in violation more than four times on any combination of rules, the Exam will be terminated immediately.
The following actions result in IMMEDIATE TERMINATION OF THE EXAM WITHOUT WARNING:
- Candidate refuses to comply with a Proctor request.
- Candidate is observed to be copying Exam content, whether with software, external device(s), manual transcription, or other means.
- Candidate steps out of view of the webcam for extended amount of time without the Proctor’s permission.
- Someone other than the Candidate is observed to complete or assist with any part of the Exam.
- A discrepancy exists between the input on a Candidate’s screen and the Candidate’s observed activity.
Policy on Tools and Resources During Exam
The following tools and resources are allowed during the exam as long as they are used by candidate to work independently on exam objectives (i.e. not used for 3rd party assistance or research) and are accessed from the shared screen which the proctor can observe (accessing resources which are not visible to the proctor will be treated as a serious violation). Candidate may:
- review the Exam content instructions that are presented in the command line terminal.
- type “man lf_exam” in the command line to view instructions again at any time during the Exam.
- use their Chrome or Chromium browser to open one additional tab in order to access assets at https://kubernetes.io/docs/ and its subdomains or https://kubernetes.io/blog/ for reference during the exam. No other tabs may be opened and no other sites may be navigated to. The allowed sites above may contain links that point to external sites. It is the responsibility of the candidate not to click on any links that cause them to navigate to a domain that is not allowed.
- use the Notepad feature accessible in the top menu bar of the exam console (notes entered here will not be retained or accessible after the exam has ended)
The following resources are forbidden during the Exam:
- Communications with other candidates or outside resources
- Use of devices other than the exam desktop
- Documentation (other than Kubernetes technical documentation)
- Notepads (other than what’s provided within the exam browser tab)
- Course manuals
- Devices external to computer on which they are taking the exam, including but not limited to: mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, smart glasses, smart watches
- Exam-specific assets, meaning those created by (or with the assistance of) those with prior exposure to the exam content and for the purpose of providing specific assistance to a candidate taking the exam.
4.3 Exam Misconduct Policy
Candidates engaging in Exam Misconduct, as defined below, will not be allowed to complete the Exam or receive an exam result. Such candidates will also be barred from taking any other CNCF Certification Exam and if applicable, will have any active CNCF Certification(s) withdrawn. Refunds will not be given and rescheduling will not be allowed in event of early termination of an exam due to misconduct. Misconduct may, at any time, result in application of the sanctions specified in Section 6. You shall adhere to all Program rules and shall not engage in any action to subvert, or attempt to subvert, the examination process (“Exam Misconduct”) including but not limited to:
- Failing to comply with the Exam Rules and Policies as listed in Section 4.2.
- Disseminating actual exam content by any means, including, but not limited to, web postings, formal or informal test preparation or discussion groups, chat rooms, reconstruction through memorization, study guides, or any other method, as well as providing exam content or information to any person not expressly authorized by The LInux Foundation to receive such content or information (including but not limited to an employee of The Linux Foundation who is not part of the Certification Program staff).
- Copying or otherwise transferring, modifying, making derivative works of, reverse engineering, decompiling, disassembling, or translating any Exam or any part thereof.
- Seeking and/or obtaining unauthorized access to examination materials (this includes using recollections of others of materials from previous administration of any Exam, a.k.a. braindump material, and/or any unauthorized publication of Exam questions with or without answers).
- Using falsified or altered certificates, score reports, or other documents or electronic media to misrepresent Certification status.
- Allowing another person, or an organization in which you are not actively involved, to use your certification credentials to obtain employment or promotions.
- Providing falsified information, documentation or statements as a means of a false identity, false address or solicitation of someone to take a test on another’s behalf.
- Giving, receiving, or obtaining unauthorized assistance during the examination or attempting to do so.
- Making notes of any kind during the Exam, whether on paper or via digital means – other than the online note taking tool provided within the exam delivery browser tab.
- Possession of non-authorized items during the Exam.
- Accepting or providing improper assistance on your Exam or Exams taken by others.
- Removing or attempting to remove Exam material (in any format).
- Intentionally or otherwise repeatedly causing a disturbance of any kind during the Exam.
- Tampering with the exam server and its environment or attempting to use it for any function other than taking a CNCF Exam.
- Modifying and/or altering the results and/or score report for this Exam or any other Exam record.
- Violating the Exam retake policy described on the CNCF website at https://www.cncf.io/certification/expert/.
- Using computer scripts to register for Exams.
- Misconduct as determined by Data Forensics as defined in Section 4.4.
- Failing to adhere to any policy, procedure, rule, or instruction of The Linux Foundation or any Exam Proctoring Partner.
- Using profanity, threatening to harm, bully or in any way harass any employee or contractor of The Linux Foundation or any Exam Proctoring Partner (whether verbally or in writing, including through electronic communications or external web postings).
- Otherwise violating the terms of the
4.4 Accuracy and Integrity of Examination Process
Upon completion, exams are scored automatically and a score report will be emailed 36 hours from the time that the Exam was completed. The Linux Foundation and/or the Exam Proctoring Partner will review your exam record for scoring accuracy, for evidence of possible misconduct, and for response patterns that may suggest that your scores do not represent a valid measure of your knowledge or competence as sampled by the examination (measurement error). The Linux Foundation will use statistical analyses of exam data (“Data Forensics”) to identify patterns indicative of test fraud including cheating and piracy. The Linux Foundation reserves the right to invalidate your exam score and certification result if review of your exam record reveals scoring inaccuracies (attributable to The Linux Foundation or the Exam Proctoring Partner) or response patterns indicative of possible misconduct or measurement error. If The Linux Foundation determines that an Exam score is invalid due to issues that are beyond the control of the candidate, the candidate will be advised of options to retake the Exam at no charge.
4.5 Special Needs
If candidates have special needs that need to be taken into account in the exam environment, they must notify The Linux Foundation two weeks in advance so any accommodating measures can be communicated to the Exam Proctoring Partner.
5. Professional Code of Conduct
Candidates, before and after Certification, shall:
- Perform duties with objectivity, due diligence and professional care.
- Access private information on computer systems only when it is necessary in the course of technical duties. Maintain the privacy and confidentiality of information obtained in the course of your activities unless disclosure is required by legal authority. Such information shall not be used for personal benefit or released to inappropriate parties.
- Provide service in your areas of competence, being honest and forthright about any limitations of your experience and education. Maintain competency in your respective fields and agree to undertake only those activities you can reasonably expect to complete with the necessary skills, knowledge, and competence.
- Strive to ensure the necessary integrity, reliability, and availability of the systems for which you are responsible.
- Design and maintain each system in a manner consistent with the purpose of the system to the organization.
- Inform appropriate parties of the results of work performed including the disclosure of all significant facts known to you that, if not disclosed, may distort the reporting of the results.
- Not engage in deceptive financial practices such as bribery, double billing, or other improper financial practices.
- Obey all laws governing your work, unless, in exceptional circumstances, such compliance is inconsistent with the public interest.
- Promote no interest adverse to your employer or client, unless a higher ethical concern is being compromised; in that case, inform the employer or another appropriate authority of the ethical concern.
- Avoid entering into conflicting obligations with one client, such as obligations of confidentiality, availability for work, or otherwise, which conflict with obligations to another client.
- Not unlawfully discriminate or knowingly permit unlawful discrimination on the basis of race, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, religion, age or disability in: (1) hiring, promoting, discharging, or otherwise determining the conditions of employment of any person; or (2) accepting or terminating representation of any client.
- Identify, document, and report significant issues of social concern, of which you are aware, in software or related documents, to the employer or the client.
- Ensure that you have no other professional or contractual obligations that are inconsistent with this Professional Code of Conduct.
6. Exam Misconduct and Professional Code of Conduct Violations
If The Linux Foundation, in its sole discretion, determines that you have engaged in Exam Misconduct (as specified in Section 4.3) or violated the Professional Code of Conduct (as specified in Section 5), you will receive written notice of the violation(s) and sanctions. It will be your sole responsibility to ensure that The Linux Foundation has your current postal address and email address and any notice by The Linux Foundation will be effective upon sending to the last postal address and/or email address you provided to The Linux Foundation. In determining what sanctions to apply, The Linux Foundation will consider the circumstances of the violation, including information related to the frequency of violations and their implications on the security of exam content and on the reputation of the Certification Program. Sanction decisions may include, but will not be limited to, cancellation of your exam score, a temporary or permanent ban on future examinations of The Linux
Foundation (including without limitation CNCF) and the cancellation of previously earned Certifications of The Linux Foundation (including without limitation CNCF).
In the event that sanctions are imposed pursuant to Section 6, or your exam score is invalidated pursuant to Section 4.4, you will have thirty (30) calendar days from the date of your notification letter to file an appeal. If you believe you have valid grounds for an appeal, please contact The Linux Foundation within the appeals period and submit a Certification Appeals Submission Form as instructed in the notification letter. Incomplete submissions will not be considered nor will requests be received after the thirty (30) calendar day period. If The Linux Foundation determines that a request for appeal is filed within the allowable time, the submission follows required guidelines for consideration and the original sanction and invalidation decision is upheld by The Linux Foundation, such appeal and the information submitted by you will be forwarded to the Certifications Appeals Committee of The Linux Foundation for consideration. You may expect to receive a written response from The Linux Foundation within approximately ninety (90) calendar days after the Appeals Committee meets. Decisions rendered by the Appeals Committee are final.
8. Term and Termination
The Agreement commences when you first accept this Agreement and shall remain in effect until terminated pursuant to its terms.
8.2 Termination for Convenience
Either you or The Linux Foundation may terminate this Agreement at any time, with or without cause, upon thirty (30) days written notice to the other.
8.3 Termination By The Linux Foundation
The Linux Foundation may, in its sole discretion, terminate this Agreement at any time if you breach any of the material terms of this Agreement (including, without limitation, the terms set forth under Exam Misconduct in Section 4.3 or Professional Code of Conduct in Section 5), or if you violate or fail to meet any Program requirements.
8.4 Notice of termination
All notices of termination must be made in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 12.6 below. The Linux Foundation will provide you written notice of termination at your last known address. Termination notices sent by The Linux Foundation are effective as of the date set forth in the notice. Written notices of termination directed to The Linux Foundation are effective upon receipt by The Linux Foundation. The Linux Foundation, without waiving its right to immediately terminate this Agreement, may provide you with thirty (30) days notice to correct any default if this Agreement is terminated under Section 8.3. If The Linux Foundation permits such a cure period, your failure to cure any default within the cure period shall automatically cause the termination of this Agreement without further notice.
8.5 Effect of Termination
Upon the termination of this Agreement or The Linux Foundation’s revocation of your Certification, you shall immediately cease to represent yourself as Certified by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation and you must cease all uses of any Mark.
9. Limitation of Liability
IN NO EVENT WILL THE LINUX FOUNDATION’S LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT EXCEED AMOUNTS PAID BY YOU PURSUANT TO THIS AGREEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE LINUX FOUNDATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING LOST PROFITS, OF ANY KIND REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF THE LINUX FOUNDATION HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THIS LIMITATION WILL APPLY NOTWITHSTANDING ANY FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY PROVIDED HEREIN. THE LINUX FOUNDATION’s LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT EXCEED THE DOLLAR AMOUNT OF THE PAYMENTS MADE BY YOU TO THE LINUX FOUNDATION FOR CERTIFICATIONS.
10. Privacy and Delivery of Certification Information to Third Parties
You acknowledge that your personal information, including, without limitation, your photograph, signature, biometric data or any other personally identifying data will be collected from you by The Linux Foundation or its authorized agents, including, without limitation, any Exam Proctoring Partner, and you agree to allow The Linux Foundation and/or its agents to gather and store this information. Your personal information may be shared outside The Linux Foundation and its authorized third party vendors under the following conditions and you consent to such disclosure by your execution of this Agreement:
I. Verification of Certification. The Linux Foundation often receives requests from third parties, particularly employers, to verify an individual’s Certification status. The Linux Foundation may, but has no obligation to, provide such information about your Certification status to others. The Linux Foundation provides such information as a courtesy to you, and you agree that The Linux Foundation has no liability for providing this information.
In response to verification inquiries that are submitted against a specific Certificate ID number and that include the Last Name corresponding to that certificate, The Linux Foundation will disclose the candidate name, certification title and status, and date of certification for that Certificate ID.
YOU HEREBY AUTHORIZE THE THE LINUX FOUNDATION TO DISCLOSE YOUR NAME, CERTIFICATE ID AND TITLE, THE DATE UPON WHICH SUCH ACHIEVEMENT WAS MADE, AND STATUS AS BEING ACTIVE OR INACTIVE, TO ANY PERSON OR ENTITY THAT MAKES A REQUEST TO THE LINUX FOUNDATION REGARDING A SPECIFIC CERTIFICATE ID NUMBER, PROVIDED THAT THE REQUEST ALSO INCLUDES THE LAST NAME THAT CORRESPONDS TO THAT CERTIFICATE ID.
II. Data Sharing. The Linux Foundation may also share personal data provided by the candidate and details of examination scores with a third party, including Exam Proctoring Partners, in order to administer the Exams, to improve the testing program and experience, to facilitate statistical analyses, and to determine if Candidate passed the Exam.
Candidate Information may be transmitted or otherwise transferred outside of the country or geographic region in which you reside or in which you took any certification examination of The Linux Foundation. You are aware that data protection regulations in other countries, including, without limitation, the United States of America, may not fully correspond with data protection regulations in your region and may provide less effective protection.
You may not assign any rights, licenses or obligations received under this Agreement to anyone. Any attempted assignment in violation of this Agreement is null and void and without effect.
12.1 Waiver and Modification
You waive any right to challenge the validity and enforceability of this Agreement on the grounds that it was transmitted and entered into electronically. You agree that entering into the Agreement electronically is equivalent to signing the Agreement. Failure by either party to enforce any provision of this Agreement will not be deemed a waiver of future enforcement of that or any other provision. Any waiver, amendment or other modification of any provision of this Agreement will be effective only if in writing and signed by both you and The Linux Foundation.
If a court of competent jurisdiction finds any provision of this Agreement to be unenforceable, that provision of the Agreement will be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to affect the intent of the provision, and the remainder of this Agreement will continue in full force and effect.
Sections 2 (Confidentiality and Intellectual Property Ownership), 3.4 (Certification Revocation), 4.3 (Exam Misconduct Policy), 6 (Exam Misconduct and Professional Code of Conduct Violations), 8.5 (Effect of Termination), 9 (Limitation of Liability), 10 (Privacy and Delivery of Certification Information to Third Parties), and 12 (Miscellaneous) will survive any termination of this Agreement.
12.4 Controlling Law and Jurisdiction
This Agreement will be governed exclusively by the internal laws of the State of Oregon, without reference to: such State’s principles of conflicts of law; the 1980 United Nations Conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods; or other international laws. The parties consent to the personal and exclusive jurisdiction of the federal and state courts in Oregon.
12.5 Entire Agreement
This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between you and The Linux Foundation with respect to the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior and contemporaneous understandings or agreements, written or oral, regarding such subject matter.
All notices sent or required to be sent shall be in writing or by e‐mail to the other party at the address for the other party set forth below. It shall be your sole responsibility to ensure that The Linux Foundation has a current address for you.
The Linux Foundation
1 Letterman Dr., Suite D4700
San Francisco, CA 94129
By indicating your acceptance of the terms and conditions of this Agreement, you hereby represent to The Linux Foundation that you: (1) have read and understood the terms of this agreement; and (2) are 18 years of age or older. Certification is not permitted for candidates under 18 years old. You acknowledge that The Linux Foundation is relying upon such representations in granting certification. The Linux Foundation shall have the right to deny certification should you fail to meet these requirements or in the event otherwise prohibited by law.
Who Is It For
This certification is for Kubernetes administrators, cloud administrators and other IT professionals who manage Kubernetes instances.read lessread more
About This Certification
CKA was created by The Linux Foundation and the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) as a part of their ongoing effort to help develop the Kubernetes ecosystem. The exam is an online, proctored, performance-based test that requires solving multiple tasks from a command line running Kubernetes.read lessread more
What It Demonstrates
A certified K8s administrator has demonstrated the ability to do basic installation as well as configuring and managing production-grade Kubernetes clusters. They will have an understanding of key concepts such as Kubernetes networking, storage, security, maintenance, logging and monitoring, application lifecycle, troubleshooting, API object primitives and the ability to establish basic use-cases for end users.read lessread more
Collapse AllStorage10% Understand storage classes, persistent volumes
Understand volume mode, access modes and reclaim policies for volumes
Understand persistent volume claims primitive
Know how to configure applications with persistent storage Troubleshooting30% Evaluate cluster and node logging
Understand how to monitor applications
Manage container stdout & stderr logs
Troubleshoot application failure
Troubleshoot cluster component failure
Troubleshoot networking Workloads & Scheduling15% Understand deployments and how to perform rolling update and rollbacks
Use ConfigMaps and Secrets to configure applications
Know how to scale applications
Understand the primitives used to create robust, self-healing, application deployments
Understand how resource limits can affect Pod scheduling
Awareness of manifest management and common templating tools Cluster Architecture, Installation & Configuration25% Manage role based access control (RBAC)
Use Kubeadm to install a basic cluster
Manage a highly-available Kubernetes cluster
Provision underlying infrastructure to deploy a Kubernetes cluster
Perform a version upgrade on a Kubernetes cluster using Kubeadm
Implement etcd backup and restore Services & Networking20% Understand host networking configuration on the cluster nodes
Understand connectivity between Pods
Understand ClusterIP, NodePort, LoadBalancer service types and endpoints
Know how to use Ingress controllers and Ingress resources
Know how to configure and use CoreDNS
Choose an appropriate container network interface plugin
Candidates have 2 hours to complete the tasks.
Candidates who register for theCertified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) exam will have 2 attempts (per exam registration) to an exam simulator, provided byKiller.sh.
The exam is based on Kubernetes v1.21
The CKA exam environment will be aligned with the most recent K8s minor version within approximately 4 to 8 weeks of the K8s release date
PrerequisitesThere are no pre-requisites for this exam.
Style and Approach
About this video
Kubernetes is also one of the hottest topics in tech today because it is perhaps the only straightforward way to architect a hybrid, multi-cloud compute a solution. Let's parse that- hybrid: this is a solution where an enterprise has a private cloud or on-premise data center, in addition to using one of the public cloud providers (such as AWS, GCP or Azure). Any firm migrating to the cloud is going to have to run a hybrid setup, at least during the migration. Multi-cloud: this refers to the use of more than one cloud provider. Why is this so important? Well, because most large firms are unwilling to be completely locked into one provider, particularly after events like Amazon's acquisition of Whole Foods (that gave pause to a whole lot of potential AWS customers, who decided that 'multi-cloud' makes sense for strategic reasons). The only straightforward way is when cloud providers offer a range of compute solutions, ranging from PaaS (Elastic Beanstalk, or Google App Engine) to IaaS (EC2, or Google Compute Engine VMs). The reality is that PaaS ties you down to one cloud provider, and IaaS is a lot of hassle, during migration and beyond. Kubernetes is supported by each of the Big-3: GCP has a special relationship with Kubernetes (since K8S originated at Google) but now AWS and Azure support it as well. Kubernetes has won the battle of the container orchestration systems. This is why containers running on Kubernetes constitute the hottest compute choice for a hybrid, multi-cloud world.
Kubernetes is a container orchestration technology - a way to create and deploy clusters of machines running containers, usually Docker containers.
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Why Is Kubernetes So Hot Right Now?
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Loonycorn is Janani Ravi and Vitthal Srinivasan. Between them, they have studied at Stanford, been admitted to IIM Ahmedabad, and have spent years working in tech, in the Bay Area, New York, Singapore and Bangalore. Janani spent 7 years at Google (New York, Singapore); Studied at Stanford and also worked at Flipkart and Microsoft. Vitthal also worked at Google (Singapore) and studied at Stanford; Flipkart, Credit Suisse and INSEAD too. They think they might have hit upon a neat way of teaching complicated tech courses in a funny, practical, engaging way, which is why they are so excited to be here. They hope you will try their offerings, and you'll like them.Browse publications by this author
Clear explanation but on premise setup not properly explained
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CKA Certified Kubernetes Administrator Certification Exam
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cncf / curriculum Public
Open Source Curriculum for CNCF Certification Courses
This is the latest version of the curriculum for the following CNCF exams:
- Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA)
- Certified Kubernetes Application Developer (CKAD)
- Certified Kubernetes Security Specialist (CKS)
If you see any errors with the document, please open an issue here. The document major and minor version (e.g., the 1 and 8 in 1.8.0) match the version of Kubernetes. The patch version (e.g., the 0 in 1.8.0) represents any iterations in the documentation for that version of Kubernetes. Old versions remain available.
CNCF encourages training companies to align their offerings to cover the contents of the curriculum. Training partners can purchase coupons for the CKA exam at a wholesale price to offer at the end of their training.
The Curriculum is available under the CC-BY 4.0+ License.
Cloud Native Computing Foundation
Linux Foundation project
|Formation||2015; 6 years ago (2015)|
|Purpose||Building sustainable ecosystems for Cloud Native software|
|The Linux Foundation|
The Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) is a Linux Foundation project that was founded in 2015 to help advance container technology and align the tech industry around its evolution.
It was announced alongside Kubernetes 1.0, an open source container cluster manager, which was contributed to the Linux Foundation by Google as a seed technology. Founding members include Google, CoreOS, Mesosphere, Red Hat, Twitter, Huawei, Intel, Cisco, IBM, Docker, Univa, and VMware. Today, CNCF is supported by over 450 members. In order to establish qualified representatives of the technologies governed by the CNCF, a program was announced at the inaugural CloudNativeDay in Toronto in August, 2016.
Dan Kohn (who also helped launch the Core Infrastructure Initiative) led CNCF as executive director until May 2020. The foundation announced Priyanka Sharma, director of Cloud Native Alliances at GitLab, would step into a general manager role in his place. Sharma describes CNCF as "a very impactful organization built by a small group of people but [within] a very large ecosystem" and believes that CNCF is entering into a “second wave" due to increased industry awareness and adoption.
In August 2018 Google announced that it was handing over operational control of Kubernetes to the community. Since its creation, CNCF has launched a number of hosted sub-projects.
In January 2020, the CNCF annual report for the previous year was issued and reflected significant growth to the foundation across membership, event attendance, training, and industry investment. In 2019, CNCF grew by 50% since the previous year with 173 new members and nearly 90% growth in end-users. The report revealed a 78% increase in usage of Kubernetes in production.
CNCF technology projects are cataloged with a maturity level of Sandbox, Incubated, and Graduated, in ascending order. The defined criteria include rate of adoption, longevity and whether the open source project can be relied upon to build a production-grade product.
CNCF's process brings projects in as incubated projects and then aims to move them through to graduation, which implies a level of process and technology maturity. A graduated project reflects overall maturity; these projects have reached a tipping point in terms of diversity of contribution, community scale/growth, and adoption.
The CNCF Sandbox is a place for early-stage projects, and it was first announced in March 2019. The Sandbox replaces what had originally been called the "inception project level".
In July 2020, Priyanka Sharma stated that CNCF is looking to increase the number of open source projects in the cloud native ecosystem.
Containerd is an industry-standard core container runtime. It is currently available as a daemon for Linux and Windows, which can manage the complete container lifecycle of its host system. In 2015, Docker donated the OCI Specification to The Linux Foundation with a reference implementation called runc. Since February 28, 2019 it is an official CNCF project. Its general availability and intention to donate the project to CNCF was announced by Docker in 2017.
CoreDNS is a DNS server that chains plugins. Its graduation was announced in 2019.
Originally built at Lyft to move their architecture away from a monolith, Envoy is a high-performance open source edge and service proxy that makes the network transparent to applications. Lyft contributed Envoy to Cloud Native Computing Foundation in September 2017.
etcd is a distributed key value store, providing a method of storing data across a cluster of machines. It became a CNCF incubating project in 2018 at KubeCon+CloudNativeCon North America in Seattle that year. In November, 2020, the project became a graduated project.
Fluentd is an open source data collector, allowing the user to "unify the data collection and consumption for a better use and understanding of data." Fluentd joined CNCF in 2016 and became a graduated project in 2019.
Helm is a package manager that helps developers "easily manage and deploy applications onto the Kubernetes cluster." It joined the incubating level in June 2018 and graduated in April 2020.
Created by Uber Engineering, Jaeger is an open source distributed tracing system inspired by Google Dapper paper and OpenZipkin community. It can be used for tracing microservice-based architectures, including distributed context propagation, distributed transaction monitoring, root cause analysis, service dependency analysis, and performance/latency optimization. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation Technical Oversight Committee voted to accept Jaeger as the 12th hosted project in September 2017 and became a graduated project in 2019. In 2020 it became an approved and fully integrated part of the CNCF ecosystem.
Kubernetes is an open source framework for automating deployment and managing applications in a containerized and clustered environment. "It aims to provide better ways of managing related, distributed components across varied infrastructure." It was originally designed by Google and donated to The Linux Foundation to form the Cloud Native Computing Foundation with Kubernetes as the seed technology. The "large and diverse" community supporting the project has made its staying power more robust than other, older technologies of the same ilk. In January 2020, the CNCF annual report showed significant growth in interest, training, event attendance and investment related to Kubernetes.
A Cloud Native Computing Foundation member project, Prometheus is a cloud monitoring tool sponsored by SoundCloud in early iterations. The tool is currently used by Digital Ocean, Ericsson, CoreOS, Docker, Red Hat and Google. In August 2018, the tool was designated a graduated project by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.
Rook is CNCF's first cloud native storage project. It became an incubation level project in 2018 and graduated in October 2020.
The Update Framework
The Update Framework (TUF) helps developers to secure new or existing software update systems, which are often found to be vulnerable to many known attacks. TUF addresses this widespread problem by providing a comprehensive, flexible security framework that developers can integrate with any software update system. TUF was CNCF's first security-focused project to and the ninth project overall to graduate from the foundation's hosting program.
Vitess is a database clustering system for horizontal scaling of MySQL, first created for internal use by YouTube. It became a CNCF project in 2018 and graduated in November 2019.
Contour is a management server for Envoy that can direct the management of Kubernetes' traffic. Contour also provides routing features that are more advanced than Kubernetes' out-of-the-box Ingress specification. VMWare contributed the project to CNCF in July 2020.
Cortex offers horizontally scalable, multi-tenant, long-term storage for Prometheus and works alongside Amazon DynamoDB, Google Bigtable, Cassandra, S3, GCS, and Microsoft Azure. It was introduced into the ecosystem incubator alongside Thanos in August 2020.
CRI-O is an Open Container Initiative (OCI) based "implementation of Kubernetes Container Runtime Interface". CRI-O allows Kubernetes to be container runtime-agnostic. It became an incubating project in 2019.
Falco is an open source and cloud native runtime security initiative. It is the "de facto Kubernetes threat detection engine". It became an incubating project in January 2020.
Main article: gRPC
gRPC is a "modern open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment." The project was formed in 2015 when Google decided to open source the next version of its RPC infrastructure ("Stubby"). The project has a number of early large industry adopters such as Square, Inc., Netflix, and Cisco.
In September 2020, CNCF's Technical Oversight Committee (TOC) announced that KubeEdge was accepted as an incubating project. The project was created at Futurewei (a Huawei partner). KubeEdge's goal is to "make edge devices an extension of the cloud".
In June 2020, API management platform Kong announced that it would donate its open-source service mesh control plane technology, called Kuma, to CNCF as a sandbox project.
Linkerd is CNCF's fifth member project, and the project that coined the term “service mesh". Linkerd adds observability, security, and reliability features to applications by adding them at the platform rather than the application layer, and features a Rust-based "micro-proxy" to maximize speed and security of its data plane.
In July 2020, MayaData donated Litmus, an open source chaos engineering tool that runs natively on Kubernetes, to CNCF as a sandbox-level project.
NATS consists of a collection of open source messaging technologies that "implements the publish/subscribe, request/reply and distributed queue patterns to help create a performant and secure method of InterProcess Communication (IPC)." It existed independently for a number of years but gained wider reach since becoming a CNCF incubating project.
Notary is an open source project that enables widespread trust over arbitrary data collections. Notary was released by Docker in 2015 and became a CNCF project in 2017.
Open Policy Agent
Open Policy Agent (OPA) is "an open source general-purpose policy engine and language for cloud infrastructure." It became a CNCF incubating project in April 2019.
OpenTelemetry is an open source observability framework created when CNCF merged the OpenTracing and OpenCensus projects. OpenTracing offers "consistent, expressive, vendor-neutral APIs for popular platforms" while the Google-created OpenCensus project acts as a "collection of language-specific libraries for instrumenting an application, collecting stats (metrics), and exporting data to a supported backend." Under OpenTelemetry, the projects create a "complete telemetry system [that is] suitable for monitoring microservices and other types of modern, distributed systems — and [is] compatible with most major OSS and commercial backends." It is the "second most active" CNCF project. In October 2020, AWS announced the public preview of its distro for OpenTelemetry.
Thanos enables global query views and unlimited retention of metrics. It was designed to be easily addable to Prometheus deployments.
TikV runs on Rust and "provides a distributed key value database." CNCF's Technical Oversight Committee voted to move the project to the incubation-level in May 2019.
CNCF hosts a number of efforts and initiatives to serve the cloud native community, including:
CNCF hosts the co-located KubeCon and CloudNativeCon conferences, which have become a keystone events for technical users and business professionals seeking to increase Kubernetes and cloud-native knowledge. The events seek to enable collaboration with industry peers and thought leaders.The North America event was moved to an entirely remote model for its 2020 season due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
|CloudNativeCon + KubeCon 2016||Nov 8–9, 2016||Seattle, Washington, United States|||
|CloudNativeCon + KubeCon Europe 2017||March 29–30, 2017||Berlin Congress Center, Berlin, Germany|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon North America 2017||Dec 6–8, 2017||Austin Convention Center, Austin, Texas, United States|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon Europe 2018||May 2–4, 2018||Bella Center, Copenhagen, Denmark|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon China 2018||Nov 14–15, 2018||Shanghai Convention & Exhibition Center of International Sourcing, Shanghai, China|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon North America 2018||Dec 11–13, 2018||Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, Washington, United States|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon Europe 2019||May 20–23, 2019||Fira Gran Via, Barcelona, Spain|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon + Open Source Summit China 2019||Jun 25–26, 2019||Shanghai Expo Centre, Shanghai, China|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon North America 2019||Nov 18–21, 2019||San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, California, United States|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon Europe 2020||March 30-April 2, 2020||Virtual[Note 1]|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon North America 2020||Nov 17–20, 2020||Virtual[Note 2]|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon Europe 2021||May 4–7, 2021||Virtual|||
|KubeCon + CloudNativeCon North America 2021||Oct 12–15, 2021||Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, California, United States|||
Diversity scholarships and stance on equity and inclusion
CNCF's Diversity Scholarship program covers the ticket and travel to the KubeCon + CloudNativeCon conference. In 2018, $300,000 in diversity scholarships was raised to enable attendees from diverse and minority backgrounds to make the journey to Seattle for KubeCon and CloudNativeCon.
In August 2020, Priyanka Sharma stated that CNCF stands "in solidarity" with the Black Lives Matter movement. Sharma also stated that she was "personally involved in a project to eradicate racially problematic terminology from code" and that the foundation is "actively working to improve the gender and racial balance inside the cloud native ecosystem" while remaining committed to creating spaces and opportunities for LGBTQIA+, women, Black and Brown people, and differently-abled people, specifically in regards to KubeCon.
Kubernetes certification and education
One path toward becoming a Kubernetes-certified IT professional is the vendor-agnostic Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) accreditation, which is relevant to admins who work across a range of cloud platforms. There are tens of thousands of Certified Kubernetes Administrators (CKA) and Certified Kubernetes Application Developers (CKAD) worldwide.
Kubernetes software conformance and training
CNCF's Certified Kubernetes Conformance Program (KCSP) enables vendors to prove that their product and service conformant with a set of core Kubernetes APIs and are interoperable with other Kubernetes implementations. At the end of 2018, there were 76 firms that had validated their offerings with the Certified Kubernetes Conformance Program.
In 2017, CNCF also helped the Linux Foundation launch a free Kubernetes course on the EdX platform — which has more than 88,000 enrollments. The self-paced course covers the system architecture, the problems Kubernetes solves, and the model it uses to handle containerized deployments and scaling. The course also includes technical instructions on how to deploy a standalone and multi-tier application.
Cloud Native Landscape
CNCF developed a landscape map that shows the full extent of cloud native solutions, many of which fall under their umbrella. The interactive catalog gives an idea of the problems facing engineers and developers deciding which products to use. This interactive catalog was created in response to the proliferation of third-party technologies and resulting decision-fatigue engineers and developers often experience when selecting software tools. In addition to mapping out the relevant and existing cloud native solutions, CNCF's landscape map provides details on the solutions themselves including open source status, contributors, and more.
The landscape map has been the subject of various jokes on twitter due to the CNCF ecosystem's expansiveness and visual complexity.
Cloud Native Trail Map
CNCF's Cloud Native Trail Map outlines the open source cloud native technologies hosted by the Foundation and outlines the recommended path for building a cloud native operation using the projects under its wing. The Cloud Native Trail Map also acts as an interactive and comprehensive guide to cloud technologies.
CNCF's DevStats tool provides analysis of GitHub activity for Kubernetes and the other CNCF projects. Dashboards track a multitude of metrics, including the number of contributions, the level of engagement of contributors, how long it takes to get a response after an issue is opened, and which special interest groups (SIGs) are the most responsive.
CNCF Technology Radar
In June 2020, CNCF published the inaugural issue of the CNCF Technology Radar, an "opinionated guide to a set of emerging technologies" in the form of a quarterly paper.
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Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA)
As one of the highest velocity open source projects, Kubernetes use is exploding. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation is committed to growing the community of Kubernetes Administrators, thereby allowing continued growth across the broad set of companies and organizations that are using Kubernetes.
Certification is a key step in that process, allowing certified administrators to quickly establish their credibility and value in the job market, and also allowing companies to more quickly hire high-quality teams to support their growth.
About the program
The purpose of the Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) program is to provide assurance that CKAs have the skills, knowledge, and competency to perform the responsibilities of Kubernetes administrators.
It is an online, proctored, performance-based test that requires solving multiple issues from a command line.
The CKA program is separate from Kubernetes Certified Service Provider (KCSP) program. You can become a CKA without needing to be involved with a KCSP, but for a company to become a KCSP it must employ at least three CKAs. You can learn more about the KCSP program.
CNCF has open sourced the curriculum around which the CKA exam has been created for the benefit of companies offering training. CNCF offers wholesale pricing on our exams to training companies purchasing in bulk. For more information, please contact [email protected]
The Certification focuses on the skills required to be a successful Kubernetes Administrator in industry today. This includes these general domains and their weights on the exam:
|Cluster Architecture, Installation & Configuration||25%|
|Workloads & Scheduling||15%|
|Services & Networking||20%|
The cost is $375 and includes one free retake. For questions on the exam, please reach out.
Quarterly exam updates are planned to match Kubernetes releases. Please see the FAQ for the current exam environment version.