Kappa tropical storm

Kappa tropical storm DEFAULT

2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season (Hitman)

No alt text available for this image

First system formed

January 6

Last system dissipated

December 31

Maximum winds

235 mph (380 km/h)

Potential tropical cyclones

49

Total damage

$1.69 trillion (2020 USD)

The 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Seasonwas an extremely hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season that caused $1.68 trillion in damage, With the Arthur forming on January 6 and Kappa dissipating on December 31, the season had a early start and late finish. There were several notable storms in 2020. In July, Category 4 Marco caused severe damage in New England. In August and September, Paul caused severe damage all around the Americas and caused thousands of fatalities and damage.

Seasonal Forecasts

SourceDateNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Average (1981-2010)12.16.42.7
Record high activity289233172
Record low activity42† 0†
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
MBR December 12, 2018 14-17 7-9 2-4
TSR March 24, 2019 34-37 27-31 19-22
CSUC April 12, 2018 32 20 6
OSMC May 15, 2018 26 14 5
NOAA June 1, 2018 35 27 21
GFS June 8, 2018 25 17 8
TSR July 1, 2018 22 15 7
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
36 26 14
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)

* June–November only

Ahead of and during the season, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many named storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale) will form during a season, and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies include the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of the University College London, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),the Olo Storm Meteorological Center (OSMC) and Colorado State University (CSUC). The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes,and major hurricanes within a particular year. On average, an Atlantic hurricane season between 1981 and 2010 contained twelve tropical storms, six hurricanes, and two major hurricanes, with an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of between 66 and 103 units.

Storms

Systems
C2 Arthur
TS Bertha
TS Crystal
C3
Dolly
C4
Edouard
C1
Fay
C2
Gonzalo
TS Hanna
TS Isaias
C5 Josephine
C2 Kyle
C4 Laura
C4 Marco
C1 Nana
C3 Omar
C5 Paul
C1 Quaid
C4
Rene
C3
Sally
C4
Teddy
C1
Unique
C5
Vicky
C2
Wilfred
C1
Xabrina
TSYvonne
C5
Zane
TS
Alpha
C2
Beta
TS
Gamma
TS
Delta
TS
Epsilon
TS
Zeta
C4
Eta
C1
Theta
C2
Iota
C4
Kappa

Timeline

Systems

Hurricane Arthur

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
150px-Hilda 2015-08-08 2025Z.jpg Hurricane Arthur (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJanuary 6 – January 17
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  967 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Bertha

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Colin 2016-06-06 1620Z.jpg Tropical Storm Bertha (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJanuary 12 – January 19
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  1019 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Crystal

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Brenda 2004 (Cooper).jpg Tropical Storm Crystal (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJanuary 25 – January 28
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1037 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Dolly

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
150px-Hurricane Rina Oct 25 2011 1745Z.jpg Hurricane Dolly (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationFebruary 5 – February 21
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  958 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Edouard

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
150px-Genevieve Aug 06 2014 2245Z.jpg Hurricane Edouardo (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationFebruary 10 – March 2
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  948 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Fay

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Gabrielle (2019 - Vile).png Hurricane Fay (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationMarch 19 – March 25 (exited basin)
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Gonzalo

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
150px-Danielle Aug 27 2010 1740Z.jpg Hurricane Gonzalo (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationMay 2 – May 8
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Hanna

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Don2017-mc-image.jpg Tropical Storm Hanna (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationMay 14 – May 18
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Isaias

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Mora 2017-05-28 0730Z.png Tropical Storm Isaias (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJune 4 – June 12
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Josephine

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Jimena a2015244 2240 1km.jpg Hurricane Josephine (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJune 20 – July 16
Peak intensity175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  907 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Kyle

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
800px-Arlene 11 june 2005 1645Z.jpg Hurricane Kyle (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJune 25 – June 31
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  981 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Laura (retired)

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Bret 08-22-1999 1431Z.png Hurricane Laura (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationJuly 2 – July 23
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  942 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Marco

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
800px-Muifa Jul 30 2011 1909Z.jpg Hurricane Marco (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationJuly 20 – August 4
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  927 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Nana

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Alex 2016-01-10 1635Z.jpg Hurricane Nana (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationAugust 2 – August 7
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  1007 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Omar

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
150px-Alex 2004-08-05.jpg Hurricane Omar (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationAugust 11 – August 24
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  955 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Paul

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
260px-Gilbert 1988-09-13 1831Z.png Hurricane Paul (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationAugust 18 – September 30
Peak intensity235 mph (380 km/h) (1-min)  825 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Quaid

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Fay 2014-10-10 1510Z.jpg Hurricane Quaid (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationAugust 24 – August 29
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Rene

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Isaias September 2020.jpg Hurricane Rene (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationAugust 28 – September 16
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  920 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Sally

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Edouard August 2020.png Hurricane Sally (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationSeptember 3 – September 18
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  953 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Teddy

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Jose 2017-09-08 13497iZ.jpg Hurricane Taylor (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationSeptember 11 – September 28
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  923 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Unique

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Tammy 2017 WMHB.jpg Hurricane Unique (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationSeptember 12 – September 17
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  987 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Vicky

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Helene September 2024.png Hurricane Vicky (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationSeptember 19 – October 3
Peak intensity165 mph (270 km/h) (1-min)  911 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Wilfred

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Hurricane Maria Approaches the Leeward Islands (36491208594).png Hurricane Wilfred (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationSeptember 28 – October 6
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  977 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Xabrina

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Ingrid 2007-09-15 1718Z.png Hurricane Xabrina (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationOctober 6 – October 12
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Yvonne

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Erin 2025-07-28 1645Z.jpg Hurricane Yvonne (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationOctober 23 – October 26
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1014 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Zane

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
800px-Irma 2017-09-06 0225Z.jpg Hurricane Zane (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationOctober 28 – November 22
Peak intensity185 mph (295 km/h) (1-min)  892 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Alpha

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
2032C2LeanneSim.png Tropical Storm Alpha (2020) Hitman Track.png
DurationNovember 1 – November 7
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Beta

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Debby 2018 MC.jpg Hurricane Beta (2020) (Hitman)Track.png
DurationNovember 4 – November 9
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Gamma

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Dolly 2020-07-20 1845Z.jpg Tropical Storm Gamma (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationNovember 12 – November 16
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  1026 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Delta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Erika Aug 16 2003 1655Z.jpg Tropical Storm Delta (2020) Hitman Track.png
DurationNovember 15 – November 23
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Epsilon

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Claudette 2009 (Cooper).jpg Tropical Storm Gamma (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationNovember 18 – November 25
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  1045 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Zeta

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Ernesto 2018-08-16 1340Z.jpg Tropical Storm Zeta (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationDecember 2 – December 9
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Eta

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
800px-Kajiki 2007-10-20 0131Z.jpg Hurricane Eta (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationDecember 8 – December 23 (exited basin)
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  937 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Theta

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
800px-Hanna 2020-07-25 2200Z.png Hurricane Theta (2020) Hitman Track.png
DurationDecember 9 – December 19
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  972 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Iota

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
FungWong2014.jpg Hurricane Iota (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationDecember 10 – December 14
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  973 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Kappa

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Saola2005.jpeg Hurricane Kappa (2020) (Hitman) Track.png
DurationDecember 17 – December 31
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  917 mbar (hPa)

Storm Names

The following list of names will be used for named storms that form in the North Atlantic in 2020. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2026 season. This is the same list used in the 2014 season.

  • Arthur
  • Bertha
  • Cristobal
  • Dolly
  • Edouard
  • Fay
  • Gonzalo
  • Hanna
  • Isaias
  • Josephine
  • Kyle
  • Laura
  • Marco
  • Nana
  • Omar
  • Paul
  • Quaid
  • Rene
  • Sally
  • Teddy
  • Unique
  • Vicky
  • Xabrina
  • Wilfred
  • Yvonne
  • Zane

Greek Names

  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma
  • Delta
  • Epsilon
  • Zeta
  • Eta
  • Theta
  • Iota
  • Kappa
  • Lambda (unused)
  • Mu (unused)
  • Nu (unused)
  • Xi (unused)
  • Omicron (unused)
  • Pi (unused)
  • Rho (unused)
  • Sigma (unused)
  • Bu (unused)
  • Tigma (unused)
  • Rigma (unused)
  • Sau (unused)
  • Xau (unused)
  • Pau (unused)
  • Tau (unused)
  • Upsilon (unused)
  • Phi (unused)
  • Chi (unused)
  • Rhi (unused)
  • Psi (unused)
  • Omega (unused)
  • Enas (unused)
  • Dyo (unused)
  • Tria (unused)
  • Tessera (unused)
  • Pente (unused)
  • Exi (unused)
  • Epta (unused)
Sours: https://hypotheticalhurricanes.fandom.com/wiki/2020_Atlantic_Hurricane_Season_(Hitman)

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Kappa Storm Tracker

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Current View of the Atlantic Basin

Tropical Outlook

Per current tropical weather outlooks, the highest current potential of a new tropical cyclone in this basin is low.

Atlantic Active Storms

No active storms


000 ABNT20 KNHC 011454 TWOAT Special Tropical Weather Outlook NWS National Hurricane Center Miami FL 955 AM EST Tue Dec 1 2020 For the North Atlantic...Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico: A gale-force, non-tropical low pressure system is centered between the Madeira Islands and the Azores. This system has become less organized during the past 24 hours, and environmental conditions are expected to become less conducive for development as the system moves southwestward during the next day or two. Although subtropical development is now unlikely, this system will continue to produce strong winds and locally heavy rains in the Madeira Islands and the Azores through Wednesday. Additional information on this system can be found in High Seas Forecasts issued by Meteo France. This will be the last Special Tropical Weather Outlook issued on this system. Regularly scheduled Tropical Weather Outlooks will resume on June 1, 2021, while Special Tropical Weather Outlooks will be issued as necessary during the off-season. * Formation chance through 48 hours...low...10 percent. * Formation chance through 5 days...low...10 percent. && High Seas Forecasts issued by Meteo France can be found under WMO header FQNT50 LFPW. $$ Forecaster Beven
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Hurricane Kappa was a peaked as a category 5 on 6 separate occasions. At first, scientists reported a tropical low near the Carolinas. The wave moved south toward Florida and finally, on December 19, 2020 formed the 31st

tropical storm/depression/hurricane. It formed as a weak tropical depression with winds at about 25-30 mph. Then it entered a body of cold water near Florida and instantly weakened. Scientists thought it had fully dissipated but they were wrong as a mission of the hurricane hunters found that it was still a low. The low strengthened back into a stronger tropical depression with sustained wind gusts of about 40 mph. The depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was given the name kappa, the 31st named storm, adding to the record of the season. By the next day the storm had strengthened into a category 1 with wind gusts of about 80 miles an hour. It then entered a phase of rapid strengthening and went from a weak category 1 to a strong category 4 in less than 24 hours. The pressure dropped from 992 millibars all the way down to 939 millibars. It then strengthened to a category 5 with wind gusts of 166 mph. It made its first landfall near Louisiana, then moved west toward Texas. It made record rainfall there, as it weakened to a category 4 with gusts of 144 mph. It surpassed the record of Hurricane Harvey, and then it moved into Mexico, weakened into a category 3, exited Mexico, and then went over a patch of cold water and then it weakened further as it got hit by the jet stream. It moved west, weakening rapidly until it was a tropical depression again but then the jet stream shifted and and it moved into a body of warm water and strengthened again until it was a category 5 storm. It inflicted damage in Baja California as it weakened into a category 3. It weakened even further as it kept going into Nevada and scientists figured it was going to dissipate. It was like the storm said no way to the scientists. It made a loop back and moved into the warm waters in between Mexico and Baja California and strengthened into a category 4. It then entered the western pacific and turned into a super typhoon. It struck Phillipines with wind gusts of 198 mph, and a central barometric pressure of 872, just two millibars short of Typhoon tip's record. Scientists thought it was going to keep as a super typhoon. But to their astonishment, as soon as the storm went over Japan, the storm weakened until it was a tropical depression. The storm then kept as a Tropical Depression for 3 days, until it found warm waters near China and strengthened AGAIN into a Super typhoon. It immediately went south, just barely missing China and ran smack dam into The Phillipines. Then it weakened into a regular typhoon but it crossed The Phillipines and went into the Indian ocean and strengthened into a Super cyclonic storm Then hit india and looped around and maintained super cyclonic storm strength. It crossed back into the Atlantic, hit Europe, and weakened into a category 3. It looped back and hit Maine and strengthened back into a category 5 for the last time on the way. It then weakened back into category 4 and rapidly weakened back into a category 1 and turned into a post tropical cyclone. It strengthened to something equal to a category 3 but it was not a hurricane because it had no eye. It then weakened into something equal to a Tropical Depression then dissipated. The remnants of kappa turned into a tropical storm which combined with another one and formed the latest hurricane on record. Kappa cost 3.7 trillion dollars. It killed 6000 and injured many more. The name kappa was retired the same year. Kappa broke many records, such as latest hurricane and latest category 5 on record. It also earned the second lowest central pressure title behind typhoon tip as the hurricane hunters later found out that it had a central pressure of 871 millibars, behind typhoon tip.

Sours: https://hypotheticalhurricanes.fandom.com/wiki/Hurricane_Kappa_(2020)
storm kappa

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season officially ends today, a record-breaking 2020 season with 30 named storms. It could soon get its 31st named storm as an impressive non-tropical low is ongoing near Madeira and the Azores – the system could become a subtropical storm soon. It would be Kappa.

The non-tropical low between the Azores and Madeira has indicated an impressive development while moving south over the weekend, it is now turning west of Madeira. Although it has not yet transformed into a subtropical low, it remains quite spectacular based on the satellite imagery and ground weather station data observations.

The system has spread severe winds and major waves into Azores and Madeira on Sunday, while heavy rain and winds threat remains for a few more days as the low meanders around the islands until mid this week.

Visible satellite of the system’s core shows impressive convective storms forming around the system’s core, with a well-defined surface low circulation and also upper-level outflow ventilation of the storm’s anvils. As we can see from the image provided by Windy.com below, its convective rain bands are extending towards southwestern Iberia today (Monday).

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-visible-satellite

According to the National Hurricane Center (NHC), a large non-tropical low-pressure system centered north of the Madeira Islands is producing gale-force winds in addition to a broad region of showers and thunderstorms. This low has changed little in the organization over the last 24 hours, but it could still acquire subtropical characteristics as it drifts slowly southwestward over the next day or two.

Afterward, environmental conditions are forecast to become unfavorable for further development. Regardless of subtropical development, this system will continue to produce strong winds and locally heavy rains in the Madeira Islands through Tuesday.

The NHC is giving the system a 40 percent (%) chance to become a tropical depression by Tuesday and a 40 percent chance to become a (sub)tropical storm over the next 5 days.

The look of the low with the water vapor spectrum was pretty interesting this Monday evening:

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-water-vapor-satellite
Image is provided by Vedur
 

If the system will be upgraded into a subtropical storm in the coming days, it would be the 31st named storm of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season. And the 10th named storm from the Greek Alphabet list, so the system could become a subtropical storm Kappa. The odds are, however, still very low.

While moving south, the system has generated a broad area of severe winds and major waves, which hit the (eastern) Azores and Madeira on Sunday.

IMPRESSIVE DYNAMICS SEEN BY WATER VAPOR SATELLITE

 

Here is a spectacular water vapor satellite animation on Monday with well-defined convection around the center, located to the northwest of the Madeira island. A spectacular dry conveyor belt is seen, wrapping around the whole cyclone.

The surface depression began forming southwest of Ireland on Friday afternoon when a deep trough was emerging south across the Eastern Atlantic. Then, the system was slowly sliding south across the western portions of the Bay of Biscay and reached somehow in the middle between the Iberian peninsula and the Azores by Saturday afternoon.

The low continue towards Madeira on Sunday and then turned west towards Monday. The central pressure was mainly steady between 994 mbar and 997 mbar most of the time after its peak on Saturday.

Below are details for the mean sea-level pressure of the system, estimated by the NOAA.

  • 997 mbar at 18 UTC, Nov 30th
  • 995 mbar at 06 UTC, Nov 30th
  • 996 mbar at 18 UTC, Nov 29th
  • 996 mbar at 06 UTC, Nov 29th
  • 994 mbar at 18 UTC, Nov 28th
  • 996 mbar at 06 UTC, Nov 28th
  • 1001 mbar at 18 UTC, Nov 27th
hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-analysis

During the afternoon hours on Monday, the NOAA MODIS satellite scan showed a very impressive structure of a nicely developed system. A well-defined cyclonic structure was visible, the center was a bit northwest of Madeira. Convective rain bands were expanding across its northeast and southeast quadrants, moving towards Portugal.

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-nasa-satellite

The Azores archipelago and the Madeira island were hit by severe winds on Sunday. Up to around 90 km/h peak gusts were reported from the Azores while powerful gusts of 120+ km/h were reported from eastern Madeira!

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-reports
LOW IS MOVING BETWEEN THE ISLANDS

 

Monday, Nov 30th

 

On Monday, the upper ridging has spread into western Europe, so the upper low and the surface cyclone are trapped to its south. The low is now moving west between the Azores and Madeira. Weather models still hint that a short transition into a subtropical low is possible. The low will maintain the mid-990s central pressure.

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-pressure-monday
Image is provided by Windy.com
 

A similar mean sea-level pressure picture is seen on Tuesday, with the system possibly being upgraded into a subtropical low. It will drift west-northwest of the Madeira island. The upper ridge and high-pressure system to its north will be strong, centered over the Bay of Biscay and to the west of Ireland.

Tuesday, Dec 1st

 

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-pressure-tuesday
Image is provided by Windy.com
 

The GFS ensemble models are in fairly good agreement that the system will now continue moving westward over the next 24 hours, then turning southwest and then south after Wednesday. Roughly being to the west of Madeira and the Canary Islands with its center.

SEVERE WINDS AND HEAVY RAIN FOR AZORES AND MADEIRA

 

It is quite impressive how well-organized the whole system was already over the weekend. Heavy rains and winds spread across the Azores and Madeira.

Attached below is the 3-day wind accumulation map over the region.

We can clearly see that the most intense winds are located along the western part of the southward trailing surface low from the north to south. Those were reaching severe speeds. The attached map below indicated the position of the low on this Monday evening, centered to the northwest of Madeira island.

The island of Madeira will continue to experience a very windy few days period.

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-winds-swath
Image is provided by Windy.com
 

And also the Azores will likely be under the effect of strong to severe winds. Especially the Azores as the swath of the most intense winds will likely be just to their east/northeast.

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-winds
Image is provided by Windy.com
 

Nevertheless, strong to severe winds are expected over the region through the mid-week. Winds could be quite dangerous on some islands where orographic features could locally increase the wind speeds to violent forces.

As the system has slowed down on Monday, the thunderstorm activity and precipitation are maintaining over the same areas for a longer period of time. This means higher rainfall accumulations are likely, especially along its front, warmer side where a lot of convective activity is seen.

Therefore, Madeira island and areas further north are still in a favorable environment for around 100+ mm of total rainfall through mid-week.

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-rainfall
Image is provided by Windy.com
 

Some flash floods will also be possible locally.

2020 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON WITH 30 NAMED STORMS SO FAR

 

The Atlantic 2020 hurricane season has now officially ended. The last Tropical Storm was Iota two weeks ago, so the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season has reached the 30th named storm. A record-breaking number of storms in one season.

Iota, therefore, is the ninth (9th) named storm from the Greek alphabet list. So the season now is well above the previous record of 6 named storms from this list, set in 2005.

hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-storm-names

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season has grazed into uncharted territory and breaking record by record each month.

The hurricane season 2020 is now the most active on record, breaking the previous record hurricane season 2005. The 2005 season had three (3) named storm formations in November, while 2020 is currently also counting three storm formations (Eta formed on Nov 1st, Theta on Nov 8th and Iota formed on Nov 13th).

There seems to be a fairly high chance that the well-above-average western Atlantic and Caribbean region sea temperatures would be favorable for tropical storm formation even in December this year.

And the season might be aiming towards Nu or Xi storm names at the end, surely there are possibilities. Stay tuned!

*******
 

Don’t miss a chance for a nice gift for your friends, family or someone special… Weather calendar could be the perfect gift for them – see below:

Sours: https://www.severe-weather.eu/tropical-weather/hurricane-season-madeira-kappa-mk/

Storm kappa tropical

National Hurricane Center warns of tropical storm Kappa formation

The National Hurricane Center has warned that a new low pressure area will form in the coming days in the center or southeast of the Caribbean Sea.

According to NOAA, environmental conditions favor the development of a tropical depression“it could form until the weekend as the system moves slowly westward through the southwestern Caribbean Sea,the advisory states.

If Kappa forms, it would be the 31st tropical storm, surpassing the previous 2005 record by three (28).The name Kappa had not been used, logically, before.

READ MORE: First bands or walls of hurricane Iota begin to be felt in Bilwi, Puerto Cabezas Nicaragua

The waters of the Caribbean Sea continue to show high temperature anomalies, despite the passage of Eta, at the beginning of this month of November, and now Iota, due to the fact that the shallow depths are still warm generating optimal conditions for Kappa, a new tropical wave Caribbean, comes into view as a possible hurricane.

Sours: https://letusclaim.com/tropical-storm-kappa-formation/
storm kappa

2020 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active and the fifth costliest Atlantic hurricane season on record.[nb 1] The season also had the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) since 2017. In addition, it was the fifth consecutive above-average season from 2016 onward. The season featured a total of 31 tropical or subtropical cyclones, all but one of which became a named storm. Of the 30 named storms, 14 developed into hurricanes, and a record-tying seven further intensified into major hurricanes.[nb 2] It was the second and final season to use the Greek letter storm naming system, the first being 2005. Of the 30 named storms, 11 of them made landfall in the contiguous United States, breaking the record of nine set in 1916. During the season, 27 tropical storms established a new record for earliest formation date by storm number.[nb 3] This season also featured a record 10 tropical cyclones that underwent rapid intensification, tying it with 1995. This unprecedented activity was fueled by a La Niña that developed in the summer months of 2020. Despite the record-high activity, this was the first season since 2015 in which no Category 5 hurricane formed.[nb 4]

The season officially started on June 1 and officially ended on November 30. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the early formation of Tropical Storms Arthur and Bertha, on May 16 and 27, respectively. This marked the record sixth consecutive year with a pre-season system. The first hurricane, Hurricane Hanna, made landfall in Texas on July 25. Hurricane Isaias formed on July 31, and made landfall in The Bahamas and North Carolina in early August, both times as a Category 1 hurricane; Isaias caused $4.8 billion in damage overall.[nb 5] In late August, Laura made landfall in Louisiana as a Category 4 hurricane, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone on record in terms of wind speed to make landfall in the state, alongside the 1856 Last Island hurricane. Laura caused at least $19 billion in damage and 77 deaths. September was the most active month on record in the Atlantic, with ten named storms. Slow-moving Hurricane Sally impacted the US Gulf Coast, causing severe flooding. The Greek alphabet was used for only the second time, starting on September 17 with Subtropical Storm Alpha, which made landfall in Portugal on the following day.

Hurricane Zeta struck Louisiana on October 28, becoming the fourth named storm of the season to make landfall in the state, tying the record set in 2002. Zeta also struck the United States later in the calendar year then any major hurricane on record. On the last day of October, Hurricane Eta formed and made landfall in Nicaragua at Category 4 strength on November 3. Eta ultimately led to the deaths of at least 175 people and caused $8.3 billion in damage. Then, on November 10, Tropical Storm Theta became the record-breaking 29th named storm of the season and, three days later, Hurricane Iota formed in the Caribbean. Iota rapidly intensified into a high-end Category 4 hurricane, which also made 2020 the only recorded season with two major hurricanes in November. Iota ultimately made landfall in the same general area of Nicaragua that Eta had just weeks earlier and caused catastrophic damage. Overall, the tropical cyclones of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season collectively caused at least 417 deaths and over $51 billion in damage.

All forecasting agencies predicted above-average activity, some well-above-average, citing factors such as the expectation of low wind shear, abnormally warm sea surface temperatures, and a neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation or La Niña. However, each prediction, even those issued during the season, underestimated the actual amount of activity. Early in 2020, officials in the United States expressed concerns the hurricane season could exacerbate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic for coastal residents due to the potential for a breakdown of safety protocols such as social distancing and stay-at-home orders.

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

SourceDateNamed
storms
HurricanesMajor
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010)12.16.42.7[1]
Record high activity30 157† [4]
Record low activity42† 0† [4]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
TSR December 19, 2019 15 7 4 [5]
CSU April 2, 2020 16 8 4 [6]
TSR April 7, 2020 16 8 3 [7]
UA April 13, 2020 19 10 5 [8]
TWC April 15, 2020 18 9 4 [9]
NCSU April 17, 2020 18–22 8–11 3–5 [10]
PSU April 21, 2020 15–24 n/a n/a [11]
SMN May 20, 2020 15–19 7–9 3–4 [12]
UKMO* May 20, 2020 13* 7* 3* [13]
NOAA May 21, 2020 13–19 6–10 3–6 [14]
TSR May 28, 2020 17 8 3 [15]
CSU June 4, 2020 19 9 4 [16]
UA June 12, 2020 17 11 4 [17]
CSU July 7, 2020 20 9 4 [18]
TSR July 7, 2020 18 8 4 [19]
TWC July 16, 2020 20 8 4 [20]
CSU August 5, 2020 24 12 5 [21]
TSR August 5, 2020 24 10 4 [22]
NOAA August 6, 2020 19–25 7–11 3–6 [23]
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
30 14 7
* June–November only
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)

Forecasts of hurricane activity are issued before each hurricane season by noted hurricane experts, such as Philip J. Klotzbach and his associates at Colorado State University (CSU), and separately by NOAA forecasters. Klotzbach's team (formerly led by William M. Gray) defined the average (1981 to 2010) hurricane season as featuring 12.1 tropical storms, 6.4 hurricanes, 2.7 major hurricanes (storms reaching at least Category 3 strength in the Saffir–Simpson scale), and an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index of 106 units.[6] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. It is only calculated for full advisories on specific tropical and subtropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 39 mph (63 km/h). NOAA defines a season as above normal, near normal or below normal by a combination of the number of named storms, the number reaching hurricane strength, the number reaching major hurricane strength, and the ACE Index.[1]

Pre-season forecasts[edit]

On December 19, 2019, Tropical Storm Risk (TSR), a public consortium consisting of experts on insurance, risk management, and seasonal climate forecasting at University College London, issued an extended-range forecast predicting a slightly above-average hurricane season. In its report, the organization called for 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes, 4 major hurricanes, and an ACE index of 105 units. This forecast was based on the prediction of near-average trade winds and slightly warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the tropical Atlantic as well as a neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase in the equatorial Pacific.[5] On April 2, 2020, forecasters at CSU echoed predictions of an above-average season, forecasting 16 named storms, 8 hurricanes, 4 major hurricanes, and an ACE index of 150 units. The organization posted significantly heightened probabilities for hurricanes tracking through the Caribbean and hurricanes striking the U.S. coastline.[6] TSR updated their forecast on April 7, predicting 16 named storms, 8 hurricanes, 3 major hurricanes, and an ACE index of 130 units.[7] On April 13, the University of Arizona (UA) predicted a potentially hyperactive hurricane season: 19 named storms, 10 hurricanes, 5 major hurricanes, and accumulated cyclone energy index of 163 units.[8] A similar prediction of 18 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes was released by The Weather Company on April 15.[9] Following that, North Carolina State University released a similar forecast on April 17, also calling for a possibly hyperactive season with 18–22 named storms, 8–11 hurricanes and 3–5 major hurricanes.[10] On April 21, the Pennsylvania State University Earth Science System Center also predicted high numbers, 19.8 +/- 4.4 total named storms, range 15–24, best estimate 20.[11]

On May 20, Mexico's Servicio Meteorológico Nacional released their forecast for an above-average season with 15–19 named storms, 7–9 hurricanes, and 3–4 major hurricanes.[12] The UK Met Office released their outlook that same day, predicting average activity with 13 tropical storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes expected to develop between June and November 2020. They also predicted an ACE index of around 110 units.[13] NOAA issued their forecast on May 21, calling for a 60% chance of an above-normal season with 13–19 named storms, 6–10 hurricanes, 3–6 major hurricanes, and an ACE index between 110% and 190% of the median. They cited the ongoing warm phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and the expectation of continued ENSO-neutral or even La Niña conditions during the peak of the season as factors that would increase activity.[14] TSR revised their forecast downward slightly on May 28, this time predicting 17 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes, while increasing the projected ACE index to 135.[15]

Mid-season forecasts[edit]

CSU released an updated forecast on June 4, calling for 19 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.[16] UA issued their second prediction for the season on June 12, decreasing their numbers to 17 named storms, 11 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.[17] On July 7, CSU released another updated forecast, predicting 20 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.[18] That same day, TSR revised their forecast to 18 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.[19] On July 16, The Weather Company released an updated forecast, calling for 20 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.[20]

On August 5, CSU released an additional updated forecast, their final for 2020, calling for a near-record-breaking season, predicting a total of 24 named storms, 12 hurricanes, and 5 major hurricanes, citing the anomalously low wind shear and surface pressures across the basin during the month of July and substantially warmer than average tropical Atlantic and developing La Niña conditions.[24] On August 5, TSR released an updated forecast, their final for 2020, also calling for a near-record-breaking season, predicting a total of 24 named storms, 10 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes, citing the favorable July trade winds, low wind shear, warmer than average tropical Atlantic, and the anticipated La Niña.[25] The following day, NOAA released their second forecast for the season, in which they called for an "extremely active" season, predicting it would contain 19–25 named storms, 7–11 hurricanes, and 3–6 major hurricanes. This was one of the most active forecasts ever released by NOAA for an Atlantic hurricane season.[23]

Seasonal summary[edit]

See also: Timeline of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season

2020 tropical / subtropical storm formation records
Storm
number
New record Old record
Name Date formed Name Date formed
03CristobalJune 2, 2020 ColinJune 5, 2016
05Edouard * July 6, 2020 EmilyJuly 11, 2005
06FayJuly 9, 2020 FranklinJuly 21, 2005
07Gonzalo July 22, 2020 GertJuly 24, 2005
08HannaJuly 24, 2020 HarveyAugust 3, 2005
09IsaiasJuly 30, 2020 IreneAugust 7, 2005
10Josephine August 13, 2020 JoseAugust 22, 2005
11Kyle August 14, 2020 KatrinaAugust 24, 2005
12LauraAugust 21, 2020 LuisAugust 29, 1995
13MarcoAugust 22, 2020 MariaSeptember 2, 2005
LeeSeptember 2, 2011
14NanaSeptember 1, 2020 NateSeptember 5, 2005
15Omar September 1, 2020 OpheliaSeptember 7, 2005
16PauletteSeptember 7, 2020 PhilippeSeptember 17, 2005
17Rene September 7, 2020 RitaSeptember 18, 2005
18SallySeptember 12, 2020 StanOctober 2, 2005
19TeddySeptember 14, 2020 "Azores" October 4, 2005
20Vicky September 14, 2020 TammyOctober 5, 2005
21AlphaSeptember 17, 2020 VinceOctober 8, 2005
22Wilfred September 17, 2020 WilmaOctober 17, 2005
23BetaSeptember 18, 2020 AlphaOctober 22, 2005
24GammaOctober 2, 2020 BetaOctober 27, 2005
25DeltaOctober 5, 2020 GammaNovember 15, 2005
26EpsilonOctober 19, 2020 DeltaNovember 22, 2005
27ZetaOctober 25, 2020 EpsilonNovember 29, 2005
28EtaNovember 1, 2020 ZetaDecember 30, 2005
29Theta November 10, 2020 Earliest formation by virtue of
being the first of that number
30IotaNovember 13, 2020
Source:[26]
* Record has since been broken.

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30.[8] The season featured 31 tropical depressions,[27] 30 of which became tropical or subtropical storms, both of which surpassed the records set in 2005.[28] Of the 30 tropical or subtropical storms, 14 of those intensified into hurricanes, which is the second highest number ever observed,[28] behind only 2005.[29] Seven of the hurricanes intensified into major hurricanes, tying 2005 for the most in one season.[30] It was the fifth consecutive Atlantic hurricane season with above average activity, exceeding the previous longest streak of four years between 1998 and 2001. A total of 10 tropical cyclones underwent rapid intensification, matching the record set in 1995.[28] The season also featured activity at a record pace. The third named storm and each one from the fifth onwards formed on an earlier date in the year than the corresponding storm in any other season since reliable records began in 1851.[26] The ACE index for the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was 180.37 units, reflecting the season's well-above-average activity. The totals represent the sum of the squares for every (sub) tropical storm's intensity of at least 39 mph (63 km/h), divided by 10,000. Thus, tropical depressions are not included in the ACE index value.[31]

The season marked the extension of the warm phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, which has been ongoing since 1995. The warm AMO favors active Atlantic hurricane seasons and tropical cyclones which are more intense and often have longer durations. As a result, sea surface temperatures across the Atlantic basin were generally warmer-than-average. A strong west African monsoon, favorable wind patterns from Africa, much lesser vertical wind shear all aided in the formation of tropical cyclones. Furthermore, the presence of a La Niña contributed to the unprecedented amount of activity during the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season.[32]Climate change also may have also played a role in the record-breaking season. Scientific American noted that "As the oceans absorb more and more of the excess heat trapped by greenhouse gases, waters will get warmer earlier in the season, which could help set new records in the future."[26] Matthew Rosencrans, the lead forecaster at the National Weather Service, emphasized that climate change has been linked to the intensity of storms and their slow movements, but not to the amount of activity, which might instead be increasing due to improvements in technology.[33]

Overall, the Atlantic tropical cyclones of 2020 collectively resulted in 416 deaths and more than $51.114 billion in damage,[34] making the season the fifth costliest on record.[35] A total of eleven named storms made landfall in the United States,[32] breaking the previous record of nine in 1916. Six of these cyclones struck the United States at hurricane intensity, tying 1886 and 1985 for the highest number in a single season.[28] Eight of the eleven named storms struck the Gulf Coast of the United States. A total of 13 landfalls occurred outside of the United States, also a record.[36] Further, Zeta became the latest major hurricane to strike the United States when the cyclone made landfall in Louisiana on October 28, surpassing the previous recordholder, the 1921 Tampa Bay hurricane, by three days.[37]

The United States reported approximately $37 billion in damage from the Atlantic tropical cyclones it was affected by in 2020. Six hurricanes inflicted at least $1 billion in damage in the United States, two more than the previous record of four in 2004 and 2005. The entire coastline from Texas to Maine was placed under some form of a watch or warning in relation to a tropical system,[28] while only Florida's Jefferson and Wakulla counties would not be issued a tropical cyclone watch or warning during the season.[38] Only five counties along the East Coast or Gulf Coast of the United States did not experience tropical storm-force winds. Louisiana in particular was heavily impacted in 2020, with the state recording four landfalls – three hurricanes and one tropical storm – tying the record set in 2002.[36]

Central America also experienced devastating impacts during the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, especially in Honduras and Nicaragua. Both nations were struck by hurricanes Eta and Iota within a few weeks.[28] The former caused at least $6.8 billion in damage in Central America,[39] while the latter caused approximately $1.4 billion in damage in the region, mostly in Honduras and Nicaragua.[3] Eta demolished or damaged more than 6,900 homes and 560 mi (900 km) of bridges and roadways in Nicaragua,[39] though the destruction wrought by the storm would later limit wind damage caused by Iota.[3] In Honduras, both cyclones destroyed tens of thousands of homes and severely impacted more than 4 million people. Furthermore, the Honduras Foreign Debt Forum noted that the two hurricanes set back economic development in Honduras by 22 years.[28]

The season also occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early in the year, officials in the United States expressed concerns the hurricane season could potentially exacerbate the effects of the pandemic for U.S. coastal residents.[40] As expressed in an op-ed of the Journal of the American Medical Association, "there exists an inherent incompatibility between strategies for population protection from hurricane hazards: evacuation and sheltering (i.e., transporting and gathering people together in groups)", and "effective approaches to slow the spread of COVID-19: physical distancing and stay-at-home orders (i.e., separating and keeping people apart)."[41] A study published by GeoHealth in December 2020 confirmed a correlation between destination counties (a county in which an evacuee flees to) and an increase in COVID-19 cases.[42]

Pre/early season activity[edit]

United States tropical watches and warnings issued during the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season. Watches and warnings were issued in every coastal county except Wakullaand Jeffersonin Florida.

Tropical cyclogenesis began in the month of May, with tropical storms Arthur and Bertha. This marked the first occurrence of two pre-season tropical storms in the Atlantic since 2016, and the first occurrence of two named storms in the month of May since 2012. For the sixth consecutive year, a tropical cyclone developed in the Atlantic basin prior to the official start of the Atlantic hurricane season,[43] extending the record, which was broken during the previous season.[44]Tropical Storm Cristobal formed on June 1, followed by Tropical Storm Dolly on June 23. Tropical storms Edouard, Fay, and Gonzalo, along with hurricanes Hanna and Isaias, formed in July.[45] Hanna became the first hurricane of the season and made landfall in South Texas,[46] while Isaias became the second hurricane of the season and struck much of the Caribbean and the East Coast of the United States.[47] Tropical Depression Ten also formed in late July off the coast of West Africa but quickly dissipated.[48] July 2020 tied 2005 for the most active July on record in the basin in terms of named systems with five.[49][45]

Peak season activity[edit]

Five simultaneous tropical cyclones active in the Atlantic on September 14: Sally(left), Paulette(center left), Rene (center right), Teddy(bottom right), and Vicky (far right). The waves that would later spawn Betaand Wilfred are respectively located to the left of Sally and to the bottom-right of Vicky, and the extratropical cyclone that would later become Alphais visible north of Rene.

Tropical storms Josephine and Kyle formed in August, as did hurricanes Laura and Marco.[50] Marco ultimately became the third hurricane of the season, but rapidly weakened and then dissipated near the south central Louisiana coastline.[51] Laura subsequently became the fourth hurricane and first major hurricane of the season. The hurricane later made landfall in southwest Louisiana on August 27 at Category 4 strength with 150 mph (240 km/h) winds.[52] Additionally, a tropical depression formed on the final day of the month which intensified into Tropical Storm Omar on September 1.[53]

September featured the formations of nine depressions, which became: tropical storms Rene, Vicky, Wilfred, and Beta; Subtropical Storm Alpha; and hurricanes Nana (which rapidly formed and was named a few hours ahead of Omar), Paulette, Sally, and Teddy.[54] This swarm of storms coincided with the peak of the hurricane season and the development of La Niña conditions.[55][56] Nana developed on September 1 and made landfall in Belize as a Category 1 hurricane.[57] Paulette struck Bermuda as a Category 2 hurricane, becoming the first tropical or subtropical cyclone to make landfall on that British overseas territory since Gonzalo in 2014.[58] Sally made landfall in Florida just south of Miami as a tropical depression before also striking the Gulf Coast of the United States as a slow-moving Category 2 hurricane and causing extensive damage there.[59] Teddy, the season's eighth hurricane and second major hurricane formed on September 12,[60] while Vicky formed two days later. With the formation of the latter, five tropical cyclones were simultaneously active in the Atlantic basin for the first time since 1971.[54] Meanwhile, Hurricane Teddy went on to strike Atlantic Canada after transitioning into an extremely large extratropical cyclone on September 23.[60] Additionally, Paulette briefly reformed as a tropical storm on September 20 before once again becoming post-tropical two days later.[58] Alpha developed atypically far east in the Atlantic and became the first tropical cyclone on record to strike Portugal.[61] Beta's intensification into a tropical storm made September 2020 the most active month on record, with 10 cyclones becoming named.[27] Beta went on to strike Texas and impact the Deep South before dissipating,[62] marking an abrupt end to the heavy peak season activity.[26]

Late season activity[edit]

Rank Cost Season
1 ≥ $294.703 billion 2017
2 $172.297 billion 2005
3 $72.341 billion 2012
4 ≥ $69.513 billion 2021
5 $61.148 billion 2004
6 ≥ $51.146 billion 2020
7 ≥ $50.126 billion 2018
8 ≥ $48.855 billion 2008
9 $27.302 billion 1992
10 ≥ $17.485 billion 2016

October and November were extremely active, with seven named storms developing, five of which intensified into major hurricanes – more than twice the number recorded during this period in any previous season.[63]Hurricane Gamma formed on October 2, before strengthening into the ninth hurricane of the season on October 3. Shortly afterward, Gamma made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula as a minimal Category 1 hurricane.[64] On the next day, Hurricane Delta developed in the Caribbean south of Jamaica and became the 10th hurricane of the season. Delta explosively intensified into a strong Category 4 hurricane, before rapidly weakening and making landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula on October 7, as a high-end Category 2 hurricane. It regained Category 3 status in the Gulf of Mexico, before weakening again and making its second landfall in Louisiana on October 9.[65] After 14 more days of inactivity in the basin, Tropical Storm Epsilon formed in mid-October and became the season's 11th hurricane on October 20.[66] By the following day, Epsilon became a Category 3 hurricane, making it the fourth major hurricane of the season. Afterward, the storm weakened as it wandered northward and then northeastward, before becoming extratropical on October 26.[66] During the same month, Hurricane Zeta formed southwest of the Cayman Islands and took a nearly identical track to Delta, striking the Yucatán Peninsula late on October 26, before turning northeastward, accelerating, and making landfall in southeast Louisiana as a Category 3 hurricane, on October 28. Then, after moving rapidly across the eastern United States,[37] its extratropical remnants left behind accumulating snow across parts of New England.[67]

Hurricane Eta, the season's sixth major hurricane, made landfall as a Category 4 storm along the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua on November 3. Eta subsequently moved back into the Caribbean and restrengthened into a tropical storm before taking a winding and erratic path that went over Cuba and through the Florida Keys before stalling in the southern Gulf of Mexico. It then moved north-northeast towards the west coast of Florida, briefly restrengthening into a minimal hurricane along the way.[39] On November 10, Subtropical Storm Theta formed from a non-tropical low over the northeastern Atlantic, before transitioning to a tropical storm later that day.[68] Just after Eta became extratropical off the U.S. East Coast, Hurricane Iota formed over the central Caribbean on November 13, tying 2005 for the most tropical and subtropical cyclones in one year. Iota rapidly intensified into a high-end Category 4 hurricane, becoming the strongest storm of the season, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 917 mbar (27.1 inHg).[3] The 2020 season became the first with two major hurricanes in the month of November.[36] Iota then went on to ravage the same areas in Central America that Eta had devastated only two weeks earlier, and dissipated on November 18, over El Salvador.[3]

Systems[edit]

Tropical Storm Arthur[edit]

Arthur 2020-05-18 1605Z.jpg Arthur 2020 track.png
DurationMay 16 – May 19
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Tropical Storm Arthur (2020)

The NHC issued a Special Tropical Weather Outlook on May 15 concerning the potential for tropical or subtropical development of a trough of low pressure located over the Straits of Florida.[69] Tropical Depression One formed from this low around 18:00 UTC on May 16, about 125 mi (200 km) east of Melbourne, Florida. Six hours later, an Air Force reconnaissance aircraft found that it had attained tropical storm strength. Tropical Storm Arthur weaved along the Gulf Stream and changed little in intensity as it encountered increasing wind shear. At 06:00 UTC on May 19, while located about 190 mi (305 km) east-northeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, the storm reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 990 mbar (29.23 inHg). Shortly thereafter, Arthur interacted with a non-tropical front and became an extratropical cyclone by 12:00 UTC on May 20. The low turned southeast before dissipating near Bermuda a day later.[70]

The precursor of Arthur dropped heavy rainfall over portions of the Bahamas, Cuba, and Florida. Precipitation in South Florida peaked at 9.95 in (253 mm) near Marathon.[70] Overall, stormy conditions in the state caused $112,000 in damage.[71] After Arthur became a tropical cyclone, tropical storm watches were issued in North Carolina from Surf City to Duck and from Pamlico Sound to Albemarle Sound on May 16; these were upgraded the following to tropical storm warnings as Arthur moved nearer to the Outer Banks. When Arthur passed by to the east, it produced an area where 3–5 in (76–127 mm) of rainfall fell across the Inner Banks region of North Carolina. It also created minor storm surge from Cape Hatteras to the southeastern Virginia coast.[70]

Tropical Storm Bertha[edit]

Bertha 2020-05-27 1600Z.jpg Bertha 2020 track.png
DurationMay 27 – May 28
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Tropical Storm Bertha (2020)

On May 26, a weak low-pressure area developed over central and northeastern Florida. By 06:00 UTC the next day, the system, then near the Georgia and South Carolina coasts, developed a well-defined center and sufficient deep convection to be considered a tropical cyclone. After formation, Tropical Storm Bertha strengthened slightly and attained its peak intensity a few hours later, with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a central pressure of 1,005 mbar (29.68 inHg) while located about 35 mi (55 km) east-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina. At 13:30 UTC that same day, the storm made landfall near Isle of Palms, South Carolina. Inland, the system turned north and accelerated, before quickly weakening to a tropical depression. During the early hours of May 28, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over western Virginia, before dissipating over the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia several hours later.[72]

In Florida, the precursor of Bertha brought up to 15 in (380 mm) of rainfall and localized flooding to the Miami area.[72][73] However, floodwaters entered some buildings in Hialeah and Miami Beach,[74] while roof collapses were reported in Hallandale Beach and Hollywood.[73] The storm also spawned an EF1 tornado in the vicinity of Redland, causing minor damage.[75] Damage in Florida totaled approximately $71,000. There was localized flash flooding in coastal South Carolina[72] and in parts of North Carolina, especially the Charlotte area. An EF1 tornado in Warren County caused about $50,000 in damage. Additionally, the remnants of Bertha caused flash flooding in portions of West Virginia.[76] Overall, Bertha left at least $133,000 in damage.[77][78]

Tropical Storm Cristobal[edit]

Cristobal 2020-06-03 1915Z.jpg Cristobal 2020 track.png
DurationJune 1 – June 9
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  988 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Tropical storms Amanda and Cristobal

A large area of disturbed weather, associated with the remnant low of Eastern Pacific Tropical Storm Amanda, moved northwestward across the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and emerged over the Bay of Campeche on June 1. Later that day, at 18:00 UTC, the remnant low developed into Tropical Depression Three. By 12:00 UTC on June 2, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Cristobal.[nb 6] Throughout the remainder of the day, Cristobal's wind field became more symmetrical and well defined and it gradually strengthened, with falling barometric pressure as the storm meandered towards the Mexican coastline. Cristobal made landfall as a strong tropical storm just west of Ciudad del Carmen at 13:35 UTC on June 3 at its peak intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h). As Cristobal drifted inland, it weakened to a tropical depression as the overall structure of the storm deteriorated. The storm turned northward on June 5 and by 06:00 UTC that day, despite being situated inland over the Yucatán Peninsula, Cristobal re-intensified into a tropical storm. As Cristobal moved farther north into the Gulf of Mexico, it again reached winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) before dry air and interaction with an upper-level trough to the east began to displace most of the central convection to the east and north of the center. Late on June 7, Cristobal made landfall over southeastern Louisiana. The system weakened to a tropical depression on the next day, as it moved inland over the state. The storm continued northward along the Mississippi River Valley, before becoming an extratropical low early on June 10 over Iowa. The low moved northeastward across Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Northern Ontario, before dissipating on June 12.[79]

On June 1, the government of Mexico issued a tropical storm warning from Campeche westward to Puerto de Veracruz.[79] Residents at risk were evacuated. Nine thousand Mexican National Guard members were summoned to aid in preparations and repairs.[80] Significant rain fell across much of Southern Mexico and Central America.[80] Over two-hundred homes and three hospitals in Mexico experienced some degree of damage.[79] Wave heights up to 9.8 ft (3 m) high closed ports for several days. In El Salvador, a mudslide caused seven people to go missing. Up to 9.6 in (243 mm) of rain fell in the Yucatán Peninsula, flooding sections of a highway. Street flooding occurred as far away as Nicaragua.[80] Tropical storm watches and warnings were also issued along the Gulf Coast of the United States beginning on June 5. Coastal flooding occurred in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Cristobal inflicted damage to 30 businesses, 23 homes, 23 roads, and 13 public buildings in Mississippi. Damage in the United States was estimated at $310 million.[79] The storm caused an estimated $665 million in damage throughout all impacted areas.[81] At least six deaths can be attributed to Cristobal, with three in Mexico and three in the United States.[79]

Tropical Storm Dolly[edit]

Dolly 2020-06-23 1720Z.jpg Dolly 2020 track.png
DurationJune 22 – June 24
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

Around June 17, an area of disturbed weather developed just north of the Bahamas after part of a tropical wave and an upper-level trough interacted. The disturbance moved north and organized into a low-pressure area early on June 22. Shortly thereafter, the low became a subtropical depression about 405 mi (650 km) east-southeast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Mid-level dry air and sea surface temperatures that were only marginally favorable resulted in very little strengthening on June 22. However, after moving east-northeastward and away from an upper low, the cyclone developed more deep convection and intensified into Subtropical Storm Dolly by 06:00 UTC on June 23. About six hours later, Dolly transitioned into a tropical cyclone and peaked with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1,000 mbar (30 inHg). However, convection rapidly diminished after Dolly moved north of the Gulf Stream and encountered drier air. Early on June 24, Dolly degenerated into a remnant low about 200 mi (320 km) south of Sable Island. The remnant low continued northeastward and dissipated south of Newfoundland early the next day.[82]

Tropical Storm Edouard[edit]

Edouard 2020-07-06 1615Z.jpg Edouard 2020 track.png
DurationJuly 4 – July 6
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

A weak frontal system moved offshore the Mid-Atlantic in early July, and an area of low pressure formed over its southern portion well to the east of the northeast Florida coast on July 3. This system soon organized as its convection gradually increased and by 12:00 UTC on July 4, the system organized into Tropical Depression Five while centered about 290 mi (465 km) west-southwest of Bermuda. The system initially moved east-northeastward and then northeastward on the north side of a large mid-level ridge. Westerly vertical wind shear and dry air in the northwestern portion of the depression caused it to change little in strength or organization as the storm accelerated and passed about 70 mi (110 km) northwest of Bermuda around 08:00 UTC on July 5. Despite the marginal conditions for development, a large convective burst formed over the center, allowing it to strengthen into Tropical Storm Edouard at 00:00 UTC on July 6. Edouard further intensified later that day, attaining maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1005 mbar (29.68 inHg) around 18:00 UTC.[83] By then, however, it was entering region of strong southwesterly vertical wind shear and colder water, and was approaching a frontal system.[84] Edouard became extratropical just six hours later as its circulation merged with the frontal system about 490 mi (790 km) east-southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland, at 00:00 UTC on July 7. The extratropical low began to slowly weaken on July 8, turning eastward and continuing to move rapidly within the strong mid-latitude westerlies. It crossed southern Ireland and the southern United Kingdom on July 9 and dissipated over the latter country that day.[83]

The Bermuda Weather Service issued a gale warning for the entirety of the island chain in advance of the system on July 4.[85] Unsettled weather later ensued, and the depression caused tropical storm-force wind gusts and moderate rainfall on the island early on July 5. Impacts were relatively minor.[85][86] Edouard's extratropical remnants brought brief, but heavy, rain to the British Isles, the Netherlands, Germany, southern Denmark and north-west Poland.[87][88]

Tropical Storm Fay[edit]

Fay 2020-07-10 1725Z.jpg Fay 2020 track.png
DurationJuly 9 – July 11
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Tropical Storm Fay (2020)

The NHC began to track an area of disorganized cloudiness and showers over the far northern Gulf of Mexico early on July 5.[89] This area was associated with the remaining section of the surface trough from which Edouard had recently formed. The disturbance moved inland over the Florida Panhandle by 06:00 UTC the next day. It subsequently emerged off of the South Carolina coast into the Atlantic on July 8. Once offshore, the low moved northeastward, and around 18:00 UTC on July 9, the center re-formed and became better defined near an area of strong convection. At about the same, an Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunter aircraft observed that the system, then near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, was producing sustained tropical-storm-force winds. With these developments, the low was then designated as Tropical Storm Fay. After formation, the storm moved northward to the east of the Mid-Atlantic states. At 18:00 UTC on July 10, it reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 998 mbar (29. 47 inHg). Two hours later, Fay made landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey, with winds of 50 mph (80 km/h). It quickly lost intensity inland, degenerating into a remnant low while over southeastern New York and later being absorbed into a larger mid-latitude low over southeastern Canada.[90]

Fay's precursor brought flooding to parts of the Southeastern United States, especially South Carolina, which recorded up to 12.96 in (329 mm) of precipitation near Saint Helena Island. Tropical storm warnings were issued for coastal areas of New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island on July 9. A similar warning was issued for coastal Delaware on July 10.[90] New Jersey experienced some of the worst impacts from the storm. Heavy rainfall caused flooding in several Jersey Shore towns and resulted in closures along many roadways, including the New Jersey Turnpike.[91] Wind gusts up to 54 mph (87 km/h) left at least 10,000 people in the state without electricity.[90][92] Fay directly caused the deaths of two people, who drowned due to rip currents; four others drowned due to the residual high surf conditions after Fay had passed by.[90] Overall, damage from the storm in the Northeastern United States totaled at least $350 million, based on wind and storm surge damage on residential, commercial, and industrial properties.[81]

Tropical Storm Gonzalo[edit]

Gonzalo 2020-07-22 1335Z.jpg Gonzalo 2020 track.png
DurationJuly 21 – July 25
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

A dry, thermal low-pressure area merged with a tropical wave just offshore the west coast of Africa on July 15. Scatterometer data early on July 21 indicated that a small, but well-defined low-pressure area formed well east of the Lesser Antilles. After a steady increase in deep convection, the low developed into a tropical depression around 18:00 UTC about 1,440 mi (2,315 km) east of the Windward Islands. Light wind shear and sea surface temperatures of 82 °F (28 °C) allowed the depression to intensify into Tropical Storm Gonzalo around 06:00 UTC on July 22. Gonzalo moved generally westward due to the Bermuda-Azores high-pressure. The storm continued to strengthen throughout the day, with an eyewall under a central dense overcast and hints of a developing eye becoming evident. Gonzalo soon reached peak intensity, however, with sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 997 mbar (29.4 inHg) at 06:00 UTC on July 23, as very dry air from Saharan Air Layer to its north significantly disrupted the central dense overcast. Although convection quickly redeveloped, the storm then encountered high wind shear, causing the cyclone to weaken. It weakened to a tropical depression before landfall on Trinidad just north of Manzanilla Beach. Likely due to land interaction, Gonzalo weakened further and degenerated into an open trough near Venezuela's Paria Peninsula by 00:00 UTC on July 26.[93]

Although the system moved westward across the Cabo Verde Islands, little rainfall was recorded as the disturbance had a limited amount of convection then. On July 23, hurricane watches were issued for Barbados and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and a tropical storm watch was issued later that day for Grenada and Tobago. After Gonzalo failed to strengthen into a hurricane on July 24, the hurricane and tropical storm watches were replaced with tropical storm warnings. The storm brought squally weather to Trinidad and Tobago and parts of southern Grenada.[93] However, the storm's impact ended up being significantly smaller than originally anticipated.[94] Only two reports of wind damage were received: a fallen tree on a health facility in Les Coteaux and a damaged bus stop roof in Argyle.[93]

Hurricane Hanna[edit]

Hanna 2020-07-25 2200Z.png Hanna 2020 track.png
DurationJuly 23 – July 26
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  973 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Hanna (2020)

On July 11, a tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa. Dry air caused the system to be mostly devoid of convection by the time it reached the Lesser Antilles on July 17. Thereafter, unfavorable upper-level winds prevented the wave from developing significantly, as it crossed the Bahamas and Florida on July 20 and July 21. After the wave reached the Gulf of Mexico, upper-level winds became more favorable. The system acquired a well-defined circulation, and a tropical depression formed at 00:00 UTC on July 23 about 235 mi (380 km) south-southeast of Port Eads, Louisiana. Despite light to moderate wind shear and warm seas, mid-level dry air caused the depression to strengthen slowly. About 24 hours after forming, the depression became Tropical Storm Hanna as it moved west-northwestward. Later on July 24, Hanna began intensifying slightly faster as convective banding increased and an eye feature developed. That same day, the cyclone also curved westward due to a strengthening deep-layer ridge to the north. Hanna reached hurricane intensity at 12:00 UTC on July 25. The storm then curved west-southwestward and peaked with sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 973 mbar (28.7 inHg). Hanna made landfall on Padre Island, Texas, at the same intensity at 22:00 UTC on July 25, one hour and fifteen minutes before making landfall in Kenedy County. The system rapidly weakened after moving inland, dropping to tropical depression status at 18:00 UTC on July 26 near Monterrey, Nuevo León, and then dissipating shortly thereafter.[46]

The precursor disturbance to Hanna dropped heavy rain to parts of Hispaniola, the Florida Keys, and Cuba. In Walton County, Florida, a 33-year-old man drowned in rip currents while rescuing his son. In portions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle, the outer bands of Hanna brought heavy rainfall,[46] even threatening street flooding in New Orleans.[95] Immediately after the system was classified as a tropical depression, tropical storm watches were issued for much of the Texas shoreline. At 21:00 UTC on July 24, a hurricane warning was issued from Baffin Bay to Mesquite Bay, Texas, due to Hanna being forecast to become a hurricane before landfall.[46] As the hurricane approached landfall, Texas governor Greg Abbott announced the deployment of 17 COVID-19 mobile testing teams focused on shelters and 100 medical personnel provided by the Texas National Guard.[96] Hanna brought storm surge flooding, destructive winds, torrential rainfall, flash flooding and isolated tornadoes across South Texas and Northeastern Mexico. In the former, the storm destroyed several mobile homes and deroofed many poorly-built structures. About 200,000 homes in Cameron and Hidalgo counties combined suffered power outages. Floodwaters entered dozens of building in low-lying areas. In the United States, Hanna indirectly caused five deaths and caused about $1.1 billion in damage. In Mexico, heavy precipitation fell in Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. More than 250 homes in Coahuila were inundated, while at least 45 neighborhoods in Reynosa reported flood damage. The cyclone directly caused four deaths in Mexico and caused approximately $100 million in damage.[46]

Hurricane Isaias[edit]

Isaias 2020-08-03 1815Z.jpg Isaias 2020 track.png
DurationJuly 30 – August 4
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  986 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Isaias

A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on July 24. The wave gradually organized and became better defined, developing a broad area of low pressure on the following day.[47] Due to the threat the system posed to the Lesser Antilles, the NHC initiated advisories on the system as Potential Tropical Cyclone Nine at 15:00 UTC on July 28.[97] By the next day, the disturbance was producing heavy rains and gale-force winds. Scatterometer passes by early on July 30 indicated that the system had developed a sufficiently well-defined center and became Tropical Storm Isaias by 00:00 UTC about 140 mi (225 km) south of Ponce, Puerto Rico. The cyclone made landfall about 16 hours later near San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic. Shortly after the storm's eye moved offshore the northern coast of Hispaniola early on July 31, Isaias intensified into a hurricane. Nine hours later, it made landfall on Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas.[47]

The storm then fluctuated in intensity due to strong wind shear and dry air, with Isaias reaching its initial peak intensity early on July 31 with winds of 85 mph (135 km/h). At 13:00 UTC on August 1, Isaias made landfall on North Andros with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h), and the system weakened to a tropical storm at 18:00 UTC. It then turned north-northwest, remaining offshore Florida and Georgia while fluctuating between 65 and 70 mph (100–110 km/h) wind speeds. As the cyclone accelerated northeastward and approached the Carolina coastline, wind shear relaxed, allowing the storm to quickly re-intensify into a hurricane at 18:00 UTC on August 3. At 03:10 UTC the next day, Isaias made landfall in Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina, at peak intensity with sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 986 mbar (29.1 inHg). Following landfall, Isaias accelerated and weakened slowly, dropping below hurricane status at 06:00 UTC over North Carolina. The storm passed over the Mid-Atlantic states before transitioning to an extratropical low around 00:00 UTC on August 5 while situated over central Vermont, and dissipating several hours later over Quebec.[47]

Numerous tropical storm watches warnings as well as hurricane watches and hurricane warnings were issued for the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, Bahamas, Cuba, and the entire East Coast of the United States. Isaias caused devastating flooding and wind damage in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Several towns were left without electricity and drinking water in Puerto Rico.[47] In the United States, Isaias triggered a large tornado outbreak that prompted the issuance of 109 tornado warnings across 12 states.[98][99][100] A total of 39 tornadoes touched down, several of which caused significant damage. Impact was mostly minor in Florida and Georgia. Storm surge in South Carolina left significant impacts in Horry County, with 483 homes damaged in Myrtle Beach alone. In North Carolina, storm surge destroyed some bulkheads and dunes, while water flooded streets and entered the ground floors of businesses in downtown Wilmington. An EF3 tornado in Bertie County demolished several mobile homes and stick-built dwellings, killing two people and injuring 14. Strong winds, storm surge, and many tornadoes left significant damage in the Northeastern United States. Almost 3 million people were without electricity at the height of the storm, including over 1 million people in New Jersey alone. Isaias caused 17 deaths across the Greater Antilles and eastern United States: 14 in the continental United States, 2 in the Dominican Republic, and 1 in Puerto Rico. Damage estimates exceeded $4.8 billion, with almost $3.5 billion of which occurring in the Northeastern United States, making Isaias the costliest tropical cyclone to strike the region since Hurricane Sandy in 2012.[47]

Tropical Depression Ten[edit]

10L 2020-07-31 1500Z.jpg 10L 2020 track.png
DurationJuly 31 – August 1
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1008 mbar (hPa)

On July 28, a tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa. Slow-moving, the system soon developed a defined low on July 29 as it turned north along the east side of an upper-level low. Associated convection became sufficiently organized for the sysftem to be classified as a tropical depression the following day; at this time the cyclone was located about 230 mi (370 km) east-southeast of the easternmost Cabo Verde Islands. The system reached its peak intensity with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and a pressure of 1008 mbar (29.77 inHg) around 00:00 UTC on August 1. Scatterometer data revealed conflicting data, with tropical storm-force winds noted in one pass within the deepest convection to the southwest of the storm's center where the weakest winds are typically found. A near-concurrent pass from another satellite showed lower winds and the highest winds were determined to be rain-inflated, and given the conflicting data the NHC determined the system to have not become a tropical storm. Thereafter, a combination of decreasing sea surface temperatures and dry air caused convection to dissipate. The depression turned west-northwest and degraded into a remnant low later that day. It soon dissipated on August 2 north of the Cabo Verde Islands.[48]

Tropical Storm Josephine[edit]

Josephine 2020-08-13 1645Z.jpg Josephine 2020 track.png
DurationAugust 11 – August 16
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

On August 7, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave over the tropical Atlantic. Shower and thunderstorm activity on the wave axis increased as it moved westward at 17–23 mph (27–37 km/h) and a mid-level circulation formed on August 9, although the low-level circulation remained elongated and poorly-organized. The wave's circulation then became defined and a low-pressure system with disorganized convection formed late on August 10. A burst of convection near the center followed by some subsequent organization allowed the system to be designated Tropical Depression Eleven at 06:00 UTC on August 11 about 920 mi (1,480 km) west-southwest of the Cabo Verde Islands. However, the depression's ability to intensify was initially hindered by dry mid-level air and moderate easterly wind shear. After over two days with little change in intensity, the shear relaxed some, allowing convection to begin to form closer to the estimated center of the depression. This allowed it to strengthen into Tropical Storm Josephine at 12:00 UTC on August 13, reaching an initial peak intensity of 45 mph (70 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1,005 mbar (29.7 inHg). Josephine's intensity began to fluctuate on August 14, as wind-shear affected the system, causing convection to be displaced from the circulation. Hurricane Hunter aircraft investigated the system later that day and found that the storm's center had relocated further north in the afternoon hours and Josephine reached its peak intensity with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1,004 mbar (29.6 inHg) at 18:00 UTC. Nonetheless, Josephine headed into increasingly hostile conditions as it began to pass north of the Leeward Islands. As a result, the storm later weakened, becoming a tropical depression at 06:00 UTC on August 16, just north of the Virgin Islands. The weakening cyclone's circulation became increasingly ill-defined, and Josephine eventually weakened into a trough of low pressure 12 hours later.[101]

Tropical Storm Kyle[edit]

Kyle 2020-08-14 1720Z.jpg Kyle 2020 track.png
DurationAugust 14 – August 15
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

A mesoscale convective system moved offshore South Carolina and Georgia early on August 11. The convective activity weakened that day, but a small mid-level circulation formed from the system and it re-developed some thunderstorm activity that night while it moved slowly northeastward off the coast of South Carolina. This activity generated the development of a weak low-level circulation that moved near the coast of southern North Carolina late on August 12. The system became better organized the next day, although it lacked a well-defined center and banding features. The low then moved offshore of the Outer Banks early on August 14,[102] and deep convection increased as most of the circulation was over the warm water temperatures in the Atlantic.[103] The low became better defined overnight as a result of the convection, and became Tropical Storm Kyle around 12:00 UTC on August 14, about 105 mi (170 km) east-northeast of Duck, North Carolina. The storm then moved quickly east-northeastward along the Gulf Stream due to the flow between a broad mid-level trough over the Northeastern United States and the western Atlantic subtropical ridge. Despite moderate-to-strong wind shear, Kyle strengthened on August 15, reaching its peak intensity around 12:00 UTC with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a minimum pressure at 1,000 mbar (29.53 inHg) about 230 mi (370 km) southeast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The storm began to weaken afterward due to increasing shear and interaction with a stationary front; its circulation began to become elongated as a result. Kyle became an extratropical cyclone when it embedded itself within the front at 00:00 UTC August 16. Its center dissipated and the remnants were absorbed into the front shortly thereafter.[102] Several days later, extratropical European windstormEllen, which contained remnants of Tropical Storm Kyle, brought hurricane-force winds to the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.[104][105]

Hurricane Laura[edit]

Laura 2020-08-26 2300Z.png Laura 2020 track.png
DurationAugust 20 – August 29
Peak intensity150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  937 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Laura

On August 16, a tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa and entered the Atlantic. The wave combined with a broad area of low pressure located a few hundred miles west-southwest of the Cabo Verde Islands on August 18. Deep convection steadily increased and became better organized as the disturbance moved across the central tropical Atlantic, and by 00:00 UTC on August 20, the presence of a sufficiently well-defined low-level circulation indicated that Tropical Depression Thirteen developed about 980 mi (1,575 km) east-southeast of Antigua. By 12:00 UTC that same day, the cyclone organized further and strengthened into Tropical Storm Laura. However, moderate wind shear then prohibited further intensification.[52] The storm had a disorganized appearance in satellite imagery as it crossed the northern Leeward islands on August 21. It then became organized on August 22, while passing just south of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico.[106] Early on August 23, Laura made landfall about 25 mi (40 km) west of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, with winds of 50 mph (80 km/h). The storm weakened little as it moved across the mountainous terrain of Hispaniola. Laura made landfall near Uvero in Cuba's Santiago de Cuba Province with winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) at 02:00 UTC on August 4, before re-emerging into the Caribbean and striking near Playa de las Tunas in Pinar del Río Province at the same intensity about 22 hours later.[52]

Laura entered the Gulf of Mexico later on August 25, where it became a hurricane around 12:00 UTC that day. Later, while situated over the central Gulf, Laura began a period of rapid intensification, and by 12:00 UTC on August 26, the storm became a major Category 3 hurricane. A mid-level low near Oklahoma caused the system to turn northwestward and then northward, and over the 24-hour period ending at 00:00 UTC on August 27, it intensified by about 65 mph (105 km/h), to Category 4 strength. At that time, Laura reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and minimum pressure 937 mbar (27.67 inHg) while located less than 90 mi (140 km) south of Creole, Louisiana. Laura's pressure then rose slightly to 939 mbar (27.72 inHg), but the storm maintained its peak winds as it made its final landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, at 06:00 UTC.[52] The hurricane became the strongest Louisiana-landfalling tropical cyclone in terms of wind speed since the 1856 Last Island hurricane.[107] Laura steadily weakened after moving inland, dropping to tropical storm strength around 18:00 UTC over northern Louisiana and then to a tropical depression over Arkansas early on August 28. The deteriorating system then turned northeastward and degenerated into a remnant low over northern Kentucky by 06:00 UTC on August 29. The remnant low was absorbed by another low centered near the Great Lakes region six hours later.[52]

As Laura passed through the Northern Leeward Islands, it brought heavy rainfall to the islands of the countries Guadeloupe and Dominica,[108] and prompted the closing of all ports in the British Virgin Islands.[109] The storm produced heavy downpours upon Puerto Rico and Hispaniola.[110] The storm left extensive damage in Louisiana, especially in the southwest region of the state. Storm surge penetrated up to nearly 35 mi (55 km) inland, while Creole and Grand Chenier were inundated with coastal floodwaters ranging from 12 to 18 ft (3.7 to 5.5 m) above ground, sweeping away structures in Cameron Parish. Wind gusts reached up to 153 mph (246 km/h) at Holly Beach, resulting in catastrophic wind damage in Calcasieu and Cameron parishes. Outside of the two parishes, Beauregard and Vernon parishes were next hardest hit, with the core of the storm passing directly over. Several other parishes reported damage to homes and buildings due to strong winds or falling trees.[52] Laura destroyed approximately 10,000 homes and damaged over 130,000 others in the state.[111] Damage in Louisiana alone totaled about $17.5 billion. Texas was second hardest hit by the storm, with high winds downing many power lines, power poles, and trees in the eastern part of the state, while some counties reported damage to businesses and homes. Laura produced 16 tornadoes in the United States, the most significant of them being an EF2 tornado in Randolph County, Arkansas. Altogether, there were 81 storm related deaths. Of these, 47 were direct deaths associated with Laura, including 31 in Haiti, 9 in the Dominican Republic, and 7 in the United States. There were also 34 indirect deaths, all of them in the United States.[52]

Hurricane Marco[edit]

Marco 2020-08-23 1940Z.jpg Marco 2020 track.png
DurationAugust 21 – August 25
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Marco (2020)

Between August 10 and August 11, a tropical wave entered into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa. Convection remained poorly organized for several days as the wave moved eastward across the Atlantic and into the Caribbean. However, showers and thunderstorms within the wave became more concentrated as it reached the central Caribbean on August 19, with a low-pressure area developing on the next day. By 06:00 UTC on August 21, the wave possessed a closed circulation and sufficient organized convection, resulting in its designation as Tropical Depression Fourteen near the coasts of Nicaragua and Honduras. The system moved northwestward and intensified, becoming Tropical Storm Marco around 00:00 UTC on August 22, as it moved over the northwestern Caribbean. This strengthening trend continued as Marco moved through the Yucatán Channel. The storm reached hurricane strength at 12:00 UTC on August 23 while centered over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 991 mbar (29.26 inHg). This would be Marco's peak intensity, as strong southwesterly wind shear caused the system to weaken to tropical storm strength by 00:00 UTC on August 24, while the center was about 265 mi (425 km) south-southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River. The storm made a westward turn as it neared the Louisiana coast later that day. Marco then weakened to a depression shortly after 00:00 UTC on August 25 and degenerated into a remnant low about six hours later, without making landfall.[51]

The storm produced rainfall in western Cuba, with amounts generally ranging from 2–5 in (51–127 mm) in Pinar del Río Province, while a peak total of 5.72 in (145 mm) was observed at Cape San Antonio.[51] Flash flooding occurred in some areas, prompting at least 14 people to seek shelter.[112] Overflowing rivers caused flooding in the communities of Acacoyagua, Escuintla, and Tapachula.[113] Heavy rains fell along parts of the Gulf Coast of the United States between Florida and Mississippi, with up to 13.17 in (335 mm) of precipitation near Apalachicola, Florida.[51] Floodwaters inundated many streets in Panama City Beach.[114] Due to its dissipating state as it approached Louisiana, the storm caused minimal impact there.[51] Overall, Marco left approximately $35 million in damage throughout its path.[115]

Tropical Storm Omar[edit]

Omar 2020-09-01 1735Z.jpg 15L 2020 track.png
DurationAugust 31 – September 5
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

A vigorous mid to upper-level shortwave trough moved into the Southeastern United States on August 29. The shortwave trough then interacted with the remnants of a frontal system, resulting in the formation of a low-pressure area offshore northeast Florida on August 30. Drifting over the Gulf Stream, the low quickly organized into a tropical depression around 12:00 UTC on August 31 while situated about 150 mi (240 km) south-southeast of Wilmington, North Carolina. Dry air and vertical wind shear offset the warm sea surface temperatures as the system headed northeastward. However, following a burst in deep convection, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Omar around 12:00 UTC on September 1. The storm then peaked with sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1,003 mbar (29.6 inHg). An increase in wind shear kept Omar weak. Consequently, the storm struggled to maintain deep convection as it moved eastward and weakened to a tropical depression early on September 3. Omar decelerated due to a weak steering flow, turning northward on September 5, due to a southerly flow associated with a deep-layer trough. Although the cyclone experienced periodic bursts of convection, strong wind shear eventually caused the storm to degenerate into a remnant low about 575 mi (925 km) northeast of Bermuda late on September 5. The low moved generally northward before being absorbed by a frontal system on the following day.[53]

Hurricane Nana[edit]

Nana 2020-09-02 1850Z.jpg Nana 2020 track.png
DurationSeptember 1 – September 3
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Nana (2020)

On August 23, a tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa. Convection increased noticeably as the wave crossed the Intertropical Convergence Zone and on August 27, when it was about halfway between the Cabo Verde Islands and the Lesser Antilles. After the system entered the Caribbean on August 30, convection became concentrated near the system's mid-level circulation center. By 06:00 UTC on September 1, the system acquired a closed surface circulation and sufficiently organized deep convection to become Tropical Storm Nana while located about 180 mi (290 km) southeast of Kingston, Jamaica. The classification as a tropical storm was because the system already possessed tropical storm-force winds.[nb 7] By 18:00 UTC that same day, the storm strengthened, reaching sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) before moderate northerly shear briefly halted intensification and partially exposed the center of circulation; even so, its pressure continued to drop. After the shear abated slightly late on September 2, Nana redeveloped convection over its center and intensified into a hurricane at 03:00 UTC on September 3 near the coast of Belize. Nana simultaneously peaked with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 994 mbar (29.36 inHg). At 06:00 UTC, the hurricane made landfall at the same intensity near Sittee Point, about 50 mi (80 km) south of Belize City. Once inland, Nana quickly weakened to a tropical storm by six hours later and then a tropical depression late on September 3 near the Guatemala–Mexico border. It degenerated into a remnant low by 00:00 UTC on September 4, and dissipated shortly thereafter. The mid-level remnants of the system emerged over the Gulf of Tehuantepec where they regenerated into Tropical Storm Julio in the eastern Pacific on September 5.[57]

Nana caused street flooding in the Bay Islands of Honduras.[117] In Belize, the storm produced sustained winds up to 61 mph (98 km/h) and gusts up to 75 mph (120 km/h) at Carrie Bow Cay. Winds caused extensive damage to avocado, banana, citrus, corn, and plantain crops, with hundreds of acres of banana and plantation crops destroyed.[57] Damage Assessment and Need Analysis (DANA) teams reported 13 structures damaged in Silk Grass and 7 others in Hopkins, while 4 homes in Dangriga experienced roof damage.[118] Elsewhere, however, structural impacts were limited.[57] Total economic losses in Belize exceeded $20 million.[119] Heavy amounts of precipitation also occurred in northern Guatemala and southeastern Mexico.[57]

Hurricane Paulette[edit]

Paulette 2020-09-14 1750Z.jpg Paulette 2020 track.png
DurationSeptember 7 – September 22
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Paulette

On September 2, a tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa. The wave organized over the eastern Atlantic and formed a low-pressure area on September 6, as it moved generally westward. Around 00:00 UTC on the next day, the low developed into Tropical Depression Seventeen roughly 1,150 mi (1,850 km) west of the Cabo Verde Islands. About 12 hours later, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Paulette. The storm moved generally west-northwestward while gradually intensifying. At 12:00 UTC on September 9, Paulette reached an initial peak intensity with sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h), which lasted for about 12 hours, before increasing wind shear weakened the storm. Despite unfavorable conditions, Paulette began to re-intensify on September 11. Eventually, lessening wind shear allowed Paulette to become more organized and begin to form an eye, becoming a hurricane early on September 13, about 415 mi (670 km) southeast of Bermuda. Dry air entrainment gave the storm a somewhat ragged appearance, but Paulette continued to slowly strengthen as it approached Bermuda, with its eye clearing out and its convection becoming more symmetric. Paulette then turned sharply northward and strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane as it made landfall on Bermuda at 08:50 UTC on September 14 with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h). The storm continued to strengthen after moving over Bermuda, reaching its peak intensity later that day, with maximum sustained winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 965 mbar (28.50 inHg).[58]

After attaining its peak intensity, Paulette accelerated northeastward on September 15 and began an extratropical transition, which it completed the next day about 405 mi (650 km) southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. After gradually weakening over the following few days and slowly curving southward, the extratropical cyclone began to redevelop a warm core as the convection associated with the low gradually increased in coverage and organization. By 18:00 UTC on September 20, the system reorganized into a tropical storm about 230 mi (370 km) south-southwest of the Azores. Then, at 00:00 UTC on September 22, Paulette reached a secondary peak intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h). It moved eastward over the next day, and became post-tropical for the second and final time on September 23 while situated roughly 690 mi (1,110 km) southeast of the Azores. Although the remnant low briefly re-strengthened again, drier and more stable air as well as colder ocean temperatures prevented redevelopment. The low meandered to the south of the Azores before degenerating into a trough of low pressure late on September 28.[58]

Paulette produced hurricane-force winds on Bermuda, with sustained winds reaching 79 mph (127 km/h) at Pearl Island and surface-level gusts reaching 97 mph (156 km/h) at L.F. Wade International Airport.[58] Trees and power lines were downed throughout Bermuda as Paulette passed over,[120] leading to roughly 25,000 power outages, which accounts for approximately 70 percent of electrical customers on the island. Damage on Bermuda totaled approximately $50 million. There were two direct deaths and one injury associated with Paulette, each of which occurred due to rip currents along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Between September 13 and September 15, several water rescues were conducted along the coast of New Jersey.[58]

Tropical Storm Rene[edit]

Rene 2020-09-10 1530Z.jpg Rene 2020 track.png
DurationSeptember 7 – September 14
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off the coast of Africa over the Atlantic Ocean on September 6. A well-defined low-pressure area already existed, though convection initially remained limited. An area of deep convection formed over the center of the low by 06:00 UTC on September 7, marking the formation of Tropical Depression Eighteen approximately 200 mi (320 km) east of the easternmost islands of Cabo Verde. Convection consolidated and organized further, with banding developing later that day, while the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Rene about 12 hours later. Moving west-northwestward for much of its duration, Rene made landfall on Boa Vista Island around 00:00 UTC on September 8 with sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). Dry air and only marginally warm seas caused convection to wane and Rene weakened to a tropical depression several hours later. After another burst in deep convection early on September 9, the cyclone re-strengthened into a tropical storm. At 12:00 UTC on September 10, Rene peaked with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1,001 mbar (29.6 inHg). Showers and thunderstorms decreased starting on the following day due to dry air and Rene weakened to a tropical depression on September 12. Strong westerly shear caused further weakening, with Rene degenerating into a trough about 1,035 mi (1,665 km) northeast of the Leeward Islands. The remnants turned southwestward and dissipated a few days later.[121]

Rene brought gusty winds and heavy rain to the Cabo Verde Islands on September 8.[122] A tropical storm warning was issued for the islands on September 7, which remained in effect though late the next day.[121]

Hurricane Sally[edit]

Sally 2020-09-16 0400Z.jpg Sally 2020 track.png
DurationSeptember 11 – September 17
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Main article: Hurricane Sally

In early September, a well-defined surface trough developed over the western Atlantic just south of Bermuda. The trough moved slowly west-southwestward towards the Bahamas, where it produced disorganized convection beginning on September 10. By 18:00 UTC on September 11, convection within the system became better organized and a well-defined center of circulation developed, marking the formation of Tropical Depression Nineteen between Andros Island and Bimini in the Bahamas. The depression moved westward and made landfall near Cutler Bay, Florida, around 06:00 UTC on September 12, with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h). Six hours later, while its center was over the Everglades, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Sally. Sally emerged over the Gulf of Mexico a few hours later and turned to the northwest once offshore. Moderate northwesterly shear hindered its steady strengthening. When the shear decreased somewhat early the next day, a burst of deep convection developed near and to the east of the storm's center and it began to go through a period of rapid intensification. During this time, Sally became a category 1 hurricane at 06:00 UTC on September 14, while centered about 145 mi (235 km) south of Pensacola, Florida, as its intensity increased from 60 mph (95 km/h) to 85 mph (135 km/h) over an 18-hour period. After weakening to 80 mph (130 km/h) early on September 15, Sally slowed to a crawl while turning north-northeastward. Later that same day, Sally began a second period of rapid intensification, becoming a high-end Category 2 hurricane by 06:00 UTC September 16. At around 09:45 UTC, the system made landfall at peak intensity near Gulf Shores, Alabama, with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 965 mbars (28.50 inHg). Sally rapidly weakened to a tropical storm by 18:00 UTC as it moved slowly inland. Later, the storm weakened to a tropical depression by 06:00 UTC on September 17, and became an extratropical low six hours later over eastern Alabama. It was subsequently absorbed within a cold front and dissipated over South Carolina on the following day.[59]

In its early stages, Sally dropped heavy rainfall in South Florida. Although this mostly caused street flooding, up to 6 in (150 mm) of water was reported in some businesses and homes in Key West. Winds downed some trees and power lines, leaving about 10,000 customers without power. The hurricane lashed the Florida Panhandle with strong winds, heavy precipitation, and storm surge. Approximately 50 structures were demolished, while thousands of others in Escambia and Santa Rosa counties suffered damage. Flooding left numerous roads impassable and washed out several roads and bridges. The widespread downing of trees and power lines left at least 245,000 customers without electricity. In Alabama, hurricane-force winds in Baldwin and Mobile counties damaged many buildings and downed numerous trees and power lines, causing 275,000 electrical customers to lose power. Farther inland, heavy rainfall left several roads impassable and washed out in Coffee, Crenshaw, and Escambia counties. In Mississippi, storm surge inundated 100 low-lying roads in Hancock County and 60 others in Jackson County. Falling trees blocked some roads and damaged some homes in the latter. Storm surge in Louisiana left some roads impassable in low-lying areas of Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, and St. Tammany parishes. Flash flooding impacted portions of Georgia

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_Atlantic_hurricane_season

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Hurricane center tracks system with chance of tropical formation

Five-day tropical outlook as of Nov. 19, 2020.

While the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season inches closer to an end, the National Hurricane Center is keeping its eyes on a possible system that could become the next tropical storm of the season.

The non-tropical area of low pressure near the Bahamas and Bermuda could form by early next week, the NHC said in its 7 p.m. update. The system could develop subtropical characteristics through mid week and has a 20% chance of developing into either a tropical depression or a tropical storm in the next five days.

The NHC had also been tracking this morning a second system that was an area of disorganized showers and thunderstorms that emerged over the far southwestern Caribbean Sea not far from where Hurricane Iota and Hurricane Eta previously were this month already. The system is expected to be slow in its movement as it drifts west toward Central America. But the NHC stopped tracking the system because it had no odds of developing although it could cause locally heavy rains.

If the remaining system being tracked becomes a tropical storm, it would become the 31st named storm of the year and receive the Greek letter Kappa as its name - something that’s never happened before.

Meanwhile, images out of Central America and the damages dealt by Hurricane Iota became much more clear detailing piles of wind-tossed lumber that used to be homes and concrete walls that were pounded into pieces by the second Category 4 storm to blast Nicaragua’s Caribbean coast in two weeks, according to a report by the Associated Press.

Nicaragua Vice President and first lady Rosario Murillo on Wednesday raised the nation’s death toll to 16. The victims were spread across the country, swept away by swollen rivers or buried in landslides.

Rescuers searched at the site of a landslide in northern Nicaragua, where the local government confirmed four deaths and neighbors spoke of at least 16.

Iota arrived Monday evening in Nicaragua with winds of 155 mph (250 kph), hitting nearly the same location as Hurricane Eta two weeks earlier. By early Wednesday, Iota had dissipated over El Salvador, but the storm’s torrential rains remained a threat. Parts of neighboring Honduras were still under water from Eta.

The storm’s center passed just south of Tegucigalpa, the mountainous capital of Honduras, where residents of low-lying, flood-prone areas were evacuated, as were residents of hillside neighborhoods vulnerable to landslides.

Some 40,000 people in the Tegucigalpa area had moved to shelters, but others remained stranded near the border with Nicaragua. Some were rescued by Nicaraguan authorities.

“We are facing an incredible emergency,” said Teonela Paisano Wood, mayor of the Honduran town of Brus Laguna. “There is no food. There is no water.”

Earlier this month, Eta caused more than 130 deaths as it triggered flash floods and mudslides in parts of Central America and Mexico. The storm also left tens of thousands homeless in Honduras, which reported 74 deaths and nearly 57,000 people in shelters, mostly in the north.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

Sours: https://www.orlandosentinel.com/weather/hurricane/os-ne-tropical-storm-kappa-national-hurricane-center-thursday-update-20201119-mvidpe7bajbgrbtis7afhmuj2a-story.html


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