Who life tables

Who life tables DEFAULT

Social Security

Actuarial Life Table

A period life table is based on the mortality experience of a population during a relatively short period of time. Here we present the period life table for the Social Security area population. For this table, the period life expectancy at a given age is the average remaining number of years expected prior to death for a person at that exact age, born on January 1, using the mortality rates for over the course of his or her remaining life.

This life table is available for certain prior years.

Period Life Table,

Exact
age
MaleFemale
Death
probability a
Number of
lives b
Life
expectancy
Death
probability a
Number of
lives b
Life
expectancy
0 , ,
1 99, 99,
2 99, 99,
3 99, 99,
4 99, 99,
5 99, 99,
6 99, 99,
7 99, 99,
8 99, 99,
9 99, 99,
10 99, 99,
11 99, 99,
12 99, 99,
13 99, 99,
14 99, 99,
15 99, 99,
16 99, 99,
17 99, 99,
18 98, 99,
19 98, 99,
20 98, 99,
21 98, 99,
22 98, 99,
23 98, 99,
24 98, 98,
25 98, 98,
26 98, 98,
27 97, 98,
28 97, 98,
29 97, 98,
30 97, 98,
31 97, 98,
32 97, 98,
33 96, 98,
34 96, 98,
35 96, 98,
36 96, 98,
37 96, 97,
38 95, 97,
39 95, 97,
40 95, 97,
41 95, 97,
42 94, 97,
43 94, 97,
44 94, 96,
45 93, 96,
46 93, 96,
47 93, 96,
48 92, 96,
49 92, 95,
50 92, 95,
51 91, 95,
52 91, 95,
53 90, 94,
54 90, 94,
55 89, 93,
56 88, 93,
57 88, 93,
58 87, 92,
59 86, 91,
60 85, 91,
61 84, 90,
62 83, 90,
63 82, 89,
64 81, 88,
65 79, 87,
66 78, 86,
67 77, 86,
68 75, 85,
69 74, 84,
70 72, 82,
71 71, 81,
72 69, 80,
73 67, 78,
74 65, 77,
75 63, 75,
76 61, 73,
77 59, 71,
78 56, 69,
79 54, 67,
80 51, 64,
81 48, 62,
82 45, 59,
83 42, 56,
84 39, 53,
85 35, 49,
86 32, 46,
87 28, 42,
88 25, 38,
89 22, 34,
90 18, 30,
91 15, 26,
92 13, 22,
93 10, 19,
94 8, 15,
95 6, 12,
96 4, 9,
97 3, 7,
98 2, 5,
99 1, 4,
1, 3,
2,
1,
94
52
28
14 73
7 38
3 19
1 9
1 4
0 1
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
 a Probability of dying within one year.
 b Number of survivors out of , born alive.

 Note: The period life expectancy at a given age for is the average remaining number of years expected prior to death for a person at that exact age, born on January 1, using the mortality rates for over the course of his or her remaining life.

The Social Security area population is composed of: (1) residents of the 50 States and the District of Columbia (adjusted for net census undercount); (2) civilian residents of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands; (3) Federal civilian employees and persons in the U.S. Armed Forces abroad and their dependents; (4) non-citizens living abroad who are insured for Social Security benefits; and (5) all other U.S. citizens abroad.

Sours: https://www.ssa.gov/oact/STATS/table4c6.html

Life table

Table which shows probability of death at various ages

US mortality table, Table 1, Page 1

In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before their next birthday ("probability of death"). In other words, it represents the survivorship of people from a certain population.[1] They can also be explained as a long-term mathematical way to measure a population's longevity.[2] Tables have been created by demographers including Graunt, Reed and Merrell, Keyfitz, and Greville.[2]

There are two types of life tables used in actuarial science. The period life table represents mortality rates during a specific time period of a certain population. A cohort life table, often referred to as a generation life table, is used to represent the overall mortality rates of a certain population's entire lifetime. They must have had to be born during the same specific time interval. A cohort life table is more frequently used because it is able to make a prediction of any expected changes in mortality rates of a population in the future. This type of table also analyzes patterns in mortality rates that can be observed over time.[3] Both of these types of life tables are created based on an actual population from the present, as well as an educated prediction of the experience of a population in the near future.[3] In order to find the true life expectancy average, years would need to pass and by then finding that data would be of no use as healthcare is continually advancing.[4]

Other life tables in historical demography may be based on historical records, although these often undercount infants and understate infant mortality, on comparison with other regions with better records, and on mathematical adjustments for varying mortality levels and life expectancies at birth.[5]

From this starting point, a number of inferences can be derived.

Life tables are also used extensively in biology and epidemiology. An area that uses this tool is Social Security. It examines the mortality rates of all the people who have Social Security to decide which actions to take.[3]

The concept is also of importance in product life cycle management.

All mortality tables are specific to environmental and life circumstances, and are used to probabilistically determine expected maximum age within those environmental conditions.

Background[edit]

There are two types of life tables:

  • Period or static life tables show the current probability of death (for people of different ages, in the current year)
  • Cohort life tables show the probability of death of people from a given cohort (especially birth year) over the course of their lifetime.

Static life tables sample individuals assuming a stationary population with overlapping generations. "Static life tables" and "cohort life tables" will be identical if population is in equilibrium and environment does not change. If a population were to have a constant number of people each year, it would mean that the probabilities of death from the life table were completely accurate. Also, an exact number of , people were born each year with no immigration or emigration involved. [3] "Life table" primarily refers to period life tables, as cohort life tables can only be constructed using data up to the current point, and distant projections for future mortality.

Life tables can be constructed using projections of future mortality rates, but more often they are a snapshot of age-specific mortality rates in the recent past, and do not necessarily purport to be projections. For these reasons, the older ages represented in a life table may have a greater chance of not being representative of what lives at these ages may experience in future, as it is predicated on current advances in medicine, public health, and safety standards that did not exist in the early years of this cohort. A life table is created by mortality rates and census figures from a certain population, ideally under a closed demographic system. This means that immigration and emigration do not exist when analyzing a cohort. A closed demographic system assumes that migration flows are random and not significant, and that immigrants from other populations have the same risk of death as an individual from the new population. Another benefit from mortality tables is that they can be used to make predictions on demographics or different populations.[6]

However, there are also weaknesses of the information displayed on life tables. One being that they do not state the overall health of the population. There is more than one disease present in the world, and a person can have more than one disease at different stages simultaneously, introducing the term comorbidity.[7] Therefore, life tables also do not show the direct correlation of mortality and morbidity.[8]

The life table observes the mortality experience of a single generation, consisting of , births, at every age number they can live through.[3]

Life tables are usually constructed separately for men and for women because of their substantially different mortality rates. Other characteristics can also be used to distinguish different risks, such as smoking status, occupation, and socioeconomic class.

Life tables can be extended to include other information in addition to mortality, for instance health information to calculate health expectancy. Health expectancies such as disability-adjusted life year and Healthy Life Years are the remaining number of years a person can expect to live in a specific health state, such as free of disability. Two types of life tables are used to divide the life expectancy into life spent in various states:

  • Multi-state life tables (also known as increment-decrements life tables) are based on transition rates in and out of the different states and to death
  • Prevalence-based life tables (also known as the Sullivan method) are based on external information on the proportion in each state. Life tables can also be extended to show life expectancies in different labor force states or marital status states.

Life tables that relate to maternal deaths and infant moralities are important, as they help form family planning programs that work with particular populations. They also help compare a country's average life expectancy with other countries.[9] Comparing life expectancy globally helps countries understand why one country's life expectancy is rising substantially by looking at each other's healthcare, and adopting ideas to their own systems.[10]

Insurance applications[edit]

In order to price insurance products, and ensure the solvency of insurance companies through adequate reserves, actuaries must develop projections of future insured events (such as death, sickness, and disability). To do this, actuaries develop mathematical models of the rates and timing of the events. They do this by studying the incidence of these events in the recent past, and sometimes developing expectations of how these past events will change over time (for example, whether the progressive reductions in mortality rates in the past will continue) and deriving expected rates of such events in the future, usually based on the age or other relevant characteristics of the population. An actuary's job is to form a comparison between people at risk of death and people who actually died to come up with a probability of death for a person at each age number, defined as qx in an equation.[6] When analyzing a population, one of the main sources used to gather the required information is insurance by obtaining individual records that belong to a specific population.[6] These are called mortality tables if they show death rates, and morbidity tables if they show various types of sickness or disability rates.

The availability of computers and the proliferation of data gathering about individuals has made possible calculations that are more voluminous and intensive than those used in the past (i.e. they crunch more numbers) and it is more common to attempt to provide different tables for different uses, and to factor in a range of non-traditional behaviors (e.g. gambling, debt load) into specialized calculations utilized by some institutions for evaluating risk. This is particularly the case in non-life insurance (e.g. the pricing of motor insurance can allow for a large number of risk factors, which requires a correspondingly complex table of expected claim rates). However the expression "life table" normally refers to human survival rates and is not relevant to non-life insurance.

The mathematics[edit]

tpxchart from Table 1. Life table for the total population: United States, , Page 8

The basic algebra used in life tables is as follows.

\,p_{x}=1-q_{x}
  • \,\ell _{x}: the number of people who survive to age \,x
note that this is based on a radix[11] or starting point, of \,\ell _{0} lives, typically taken as ,
\,\ell _{x+1}=\ell _{x}\cdot (1-q_{x})=\ell _{x}\cdot p_{x}
\,{\ell _{x+1} \over \ell _{x}}=p_{x}
  • \,d_{x}: the number of people who die aged \,x last birthday
\,d_{x}=\ell _{x}-\ell _{x+1}=\ell _{x}\cdot (1-p_{x})=\ell _{x}\cdot q_{x}
\,{}_{t}p_{x}={\ell _{x+t} \over \ell _{x}}
\,{}_{t\mid k}q_{x}={}_{t}p_{x}\cdot {}_{k}q_{x+t}={\ell _{x+t}-\ell _{x+t+k} \over \ell _{x}}
  • μx&#;: the force of mortality, i.e. the instantaneous mortality rate at age x, i.e. the number of people dying in a short interval starting at age x, divided by x and also divided by the length of the interval.

Another common variable is

  • \,m_{x}

This symbol refers to central rate of mortality. It is approximately equal to the average force of mortality, averaged over the year of age.

Further descriptions: The variable dx stands for the number of deaths that would occur within two consecutive age numbers. An example of this is the number of deaths in a cohort that were recorded between the age of seven and the age of eight. The variable ℓx, which stands for the opposite of dx, represents the number of people who lived between two consecutive age numbers. of zero is equal to , The variable Tx stands for the years lived beyond each age number x by all members in the generation. Ėx represents the life expectancy for members already at a specific age number.[3]

Ending a mortality table[edit]

In practice, it is useful to have an ultimate age associated with a mortality table. Once the ultimate age is reached, the mortality rate is assumed to be This age may be the point at which life insurance benefits are paid to a survivor or annuity payments cease.

Four methods can be used to end mortality tables:[12]

  • The Forced Method: Select an ultimate age and set the mortality rate at that age equal to without any changes to other mortality rates. This creates a discontinuity at the ultimate age compared to the penultimate and prior ages.
  • The Blended Method: Select an ultimate age and blend the rates from some earlier age to dovetail smoothly into at the ultimate age.
  • The Pattern Method: Let the pattern of mortality continue until the rate approaches or hits and set that as the ultimate age.
  • The Less-Than-One Method: This is a variation on the Forced Method. The ultimate mortality rate is set equal to the expected mortality at a selected ultimate age, rather as in the Forced Method. This rate will be less than

Epidemiology[edit]

In epidemiology and public health, both standard life tables (used to calculate life expectancy), as well as the Sullivan and multi-state life tables (used to calculate health expectancy), are the most commonly mathematical used devices. The latter includes information on health in addition to mortality. By watching over the life expectancy of any year(s) being studied, epidemiologists can see if diseases are contributing to the overall increase in mortality rates.[13] Epidemiologists are able to help demographers understand the sudden decline of life expectancy by linking it to the health problems that are arising in certain populations.[13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Harper, Begon. "Cohort Life Tables". Tiem. Retrieved 9 February
  2. ^ ab"Life Table: Meaning, Types and Importance". Sociology Discussion - Discuss Anything About Sociology. Retrieved
  3. ^ abcdefBell, Felicitie. "LIFE TABLES FOR THE UNITED STATES SOCIAL SECURITY AREA –". Social Security. Retrieved 9 February
  4. ^Silcocks, P. B. S.; Jenner, D. A.; Reza, R. (). "Life expectancy as a summary of mortality in a population: statistical considerations and suitability for use by health authorities". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 55 (1): 38– doi/jech ISSN&#;X. PMC&#; PMID&#;
  5. ^Saskia Hin, The Demography of Roman Italy, Cambridge University Press, , pp. –
  6. ^ abcPavía, Jose. "Introducing Migratory Flows in Life Table Construction"(PDF). Upcommons. Retrieved 10 February
  7. ^Barendregt, Jan J (September ). "Coping with multiple morbidity in a life table". Mathematical Population Studies. 7 (1): 29– doi/ PMID&#;
  8. ^admin (). "Life-tables and their demographic applications". Health Knowledge. Retrieved
  9. ^"Life Table: Meaning, Types and Importance". Sociology Discussion - Discuss Anything About Sociology. Retrieved
  10. ^Roser, Max (). "Life Expectancy". Our World in Data. Retrieved
  11. ^"Period Abridged Life Tables". avon.nhs.uk. Archived from the original on
  12. ^"Ending the Mortality Table"(PDF). soa.org.
  13. ^ abBernstein, Lenny (). "U.S. life expectancy declines for the first time since ". Washington Post. ISSN&#; Retrieved

References[edit]

  • Shepard, Jon; Robert W. Greene (). Sociology and You. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw–Hill. pp.&#;A ISBN&#;.
  • "Life Expectancies". Office of the State Actuary. Retrieved
  • Preston, Samuel H.; Patrick Heuveline; Michel Guillot (). Demography: measuring and modeling population processes. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN&#;.[page&#;needed]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_table
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  3. Coolsculpting gyno reddit

Lesson 3: Life Tables

Overview 

The goal of this lesson is to review elements of ordinary life tables that are essential to understanding multiple-decrement life tables.

The focus of the first section () is on understanding what the columns of an ordinary life table reveal. The second section () shows how to construct a life table.

For more extensive coverage of ordinary life tables, see Population Analysis for Planners, another free, online course developed as part of the DAPR project.

Download a zip file containing data for Lesson 3 in Excel and CSV formats.

An Ordinary Life Table

An ordinary life table is a statistical tool that summarizes the mortality experience of a population and yields information about longevity and life expectation. Although it is generally used for studying mortality, the life table format can be used to summarize any duration variable, such as duration of marriage, duration of contraceptive use, etc.

An Example of a Life Table

A typical life table contains several columns, each with a unique interpretation. We will learn about these columns and their interpretations by examining an illustrative life table. First, an introduction to the notation:

Table Life Table Column Notation

ColumnNotationDefinition
1

(x, x+ n)

Age interval or period of life between two exact ages stated in years
2

nqx

Proportion of persons alive at the beginning of the age interval who die during the age interval
3

lx

Of the starting number of newborns in the life table (called the radix of the life table, usually set at ,) the number living at the beginning of the age interval (or the number surviving to the beginning of the age interval)
4

ndx

The number of persons in the cohort who die in the age interval (x, x+ n)
5

nLx

Number of years of life lived by the cohort within the indicated age interval (x, x+ n) (or person-years of life in the age interval)
6

Tx

Total person-years of life contributed by the cohort after attaining age x
7

ex0

Average number of years of life remaining for a person alive at the beginning of age interval x

The table below (Table ) gives an ordinary life table of the United States population (adapted from NCHS; National Vital Statistics Reports Vol. 47, No. 19, June 30, ).


Table Abridged Life Table for the Total United States Population,

(1)
Age Interval
(x, x + n)
(2)

nqx
(3)

lx
(4)

ndx
(5)

nLx
(6)

Tx
(7)

ex0
< 1
91
+

Interpretation of and Relationships among the Columns

The nqx column has a probabilistic interpretation:

nqx ~ Probability that a person of age x will die in the
          age interval (x, x + n)

Also note that 1.gif

Or with reference to the columns,Column 2 = 2.gif

Example

in Table
3.gif

A graph of nqx across the life span is given in Figure A graph of age-specific death rates would have a similar shape.

Figure  nqx across the Life Span for US

4.gif

The lx column also has a probabilistic interpretation:

5.gif~Proportion of the newborns surviving to that age
(In Table , divide Column 3 by ,)

These proportions are called survival probabilities. A plot of the survival probabilities across the life span is given in Figure

Figure  lx across the Life Span for US

6.gif

There are simple relationships between the ndx column and the lx and the nqx columns in the life table:

(a)7.gif(In Table multiply Column 3 by Column 2.)

Example

From Table
8.gif

(b) Because everybody eventually dies, the sum of the number of deaths in all the age intervals will be equal to the radix of the life table, i.e.:

9.gif

Example

In Table

The sum of the ndx column is equal to , = l0

(c) The relationships in (b) can be extended as follows:

Because everybody who survives to age x will eventually die, the sum of deaths from that age to the end of the table will be equal to the number surviving to that age, i.e.:

gif

Example

In Table
gif

gif

(d) Number of persons dying before a specified age x is the sum of deaths from the beginning of the table to that specified age:

Number dying before age x = gif

Example

In Table , the number of
persons dying before age

gif

(e)  From (d) above, the proportion (probability) that a newborn will die before reaching age x is calculated as:

gif

Example

In Table , the probability
of dying before reaching age

gif

(f) Although not shown in the life table, one useful quantity to calculate from the table is the proportion surviving each age interval. This proportion is denoted as npx. Note that:

gif

Therefore,  gif

Also note that one can write:

gif

Or the lx column is related to the npx column by the relation:

gif

Thus, one can compute the cumulative survival function as the product of survival probabilities of each interval:

Example

In Table

gif

Exercise 6 

Question 1

The radix of the life table is usually , but may be a different number. Where in an ordinary life table can you always look to find out what the radix is?

  1. In the first row of Column 7
  2. In the first row of Column 3
  3. In the last row of Column 7
  4. In the last row of Column 1

Question 2

According to Column 7 of Table , a newborn in the US in may expect to reach age Once that child gets to age 50, what age would he/she expect to reach?

  1. No change --

Question 3

According to Table , of those born in the US in who make it to age 70, what percentage are expected to die before they reach age 75?

  1. 14%
  2. 20%
  3. 6%
  4. 9%

Question 4

According to Table , what is the probability of a newborn in the US in surviving to age 20?

Find answers in the Answer Key below.

^Top

Construction of an Ordinary Life Table

Knowledge of ordinary life table construction is essential in the construction of a multiple-decrement life table. There are a number of methods available to construct an ordinary life table using data on age-specific death rates. The most common methods are those of Reed Merrell, Greville, Keyfitz, Frauenthal, and Chiang (for a discussion of these methods see Namboodiri and Suchindran, ).

In this section we construct an ordinary life table with data on age-specific death rates based on a simple method suggested by Fergany ( "On the Human Survivorship Function and Life Table Construction," Demography8(3)). In this method the age-specific death rate (nmx) will be converted into the proportion dying in the age interval (nqx ) using a simple formula:

Formula (1)

gif

where e is the symbol for the base number of a natural log (a constant equal to ) and n is the length of the age interval. (Note: do not confuse the symbol e here with the ex0 used in "expected life" notation.)

Once nqx is calculated with age-specific death rates, the remaining columns of the life table are easily calculated using the following relationships:

Example Converting the Age-Specific Death Rate into the Proportion Dying in the Age Interval

Table of Lesson shows that the age-specific death rate for age group (4m1) for Costa Rican males in is per person. (Keep in mind that tables presenting age-specific death rates will usually present the rate as "number of deaths per people," but in the calculations used in constructing an ordinary life table, the age-specific death rate is "number of deaths per person.")

Using formula (1) from above,

4q1 = 1 - e - 4* = 1 - =
Fergany Method, Step by Step

In this example we use the age-specific death rates from Table of Lesson to complete the construction of a life table for Costa Rican males. We will follow the Fergany Method.

Step 1

Obtain age-specific death rates. Note that age-specific death rates are per person (Column 2 of Table ).

Step 2

Convert age-specific death rates (nMx) to the proportion dying in the age interval (nqx) values using the following formula (formula (1) from above):
gif, where n is the length of the age interval

Table Life Table Construction: Costa Rican Males

(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Age Intervalnmxnqx

lx

ndxnLx

Tx

ex0

<1 year,7,96,6,,
92,2,,6,,
90,,5,,
89,,5,,
88,,4,,
88,,4,,
87,,4,,
86,,3,,
85,1,,3,,
84,1,,2,,
82,2,,2,,
80,3,,1,,
76,4,,1,,
71,7,,1,,
63,10,,,
53,12,,,
40,13,,,
27,13,,,
85+14,14,42,42,

Step 2 Examples

For age interval
n = 1
Age-specific death rate (gif) =
gif

For age interval
n = 4
Age-specific death rate (gif) =
gif

For age interval
n = 5
Age-specific death rate (gif) =
gif

For age interval 85+:
Because everybody in the population eventually dies, the nqx value of this age interval is set to 1. (nqx value for an open-ended class is always set to 1.)

Step 3

Use nqx to compute lx values in Column 3.

First set gif= ,

Then eqgif=gif

Or in general gif

(Note: This computational formula is easy to implement on the spreadsheet. First compute l1 and copy to the remaining cells of the column.)

Step 3 Examples

gif (Round to integer)

gif

Step 4

Calculate the number of deaths in age intervals (gif) in Column 4 as:

gif (Column 3 * Column 2)

Note: Sometimes it is easy to implement Steps 3 and 4 simultaneously:
First write gif= ,
Then calculate:

gif (Round to integer)

Then:
gif
gif

Step 5

In Column 5, compute the person-years of life in the indicated age interval (gif) as:

gif  (Column 4 / age-specific death rate)

Step 5 Example

gif  (Round to integer)

Step 6

In Column 6, compute the cumulative person-years of life after a specified age (Tx):

gif(Sum values in Column 6 from a specified age to the end of the table.)

Step 6 Examples

gif

Step 7

The final column of the life table (Column 7) is the expectation of life at specified ages. This column is computed as:

gif  (Column 6 / Column 3)

gif

The life table construction is complete with the implementation of Step 7.

Selected Features of the Life Table

We will examine some features of the constructed life table that are relevant to the construction and interpretation of a multiple-decrement life table:

1. Sum of the gif values in Column 4 will be equal to , (= gif).

2. Sum of the gifvalues in Column 4 from a specified age will be equal to the gif value at this age as shown in Column 3.

 For example:

gif

Thus, one can interpret gif as the cumulative number of deaths after a specified age.

3. Age at which people in the life table cohort die is also important in our understanding of the age pattern of death. The gif column (Column 4 of the life table) gives the frequency distribution of the age at death in the population.

A graph of this frequency distribution will show the age pattern of death in the population. Unfortunately, this frequency distribution is given in age intervals of unequal length (and an open-ended interval at the end). Therefore a graph adjusting for the unequal age intervals is more appropriate for this life table.

Figure shows the pattern of the age distribution of deaths from the life table above (Table ). Note that in this example the open-ended age interval 85+ is closed at The proportion of deaths in each age group is divided by the length of the age interval. The graph is drawn by connecting the values at the midpoint of each interval.

Figure Age Distribution of Deaths for Costa Rican Males
gif

The graph shows that a high proportion of the cohort dies in infancy. The deaths decrease until early adulthood, rise until age 80, and then begin to decrease again at the extreme ages. Note that the sharp decrease at the far right is due to the small number of extremely old survivors in this population.

4. The cumulative number of deaths from the beginning of life also can be calculated by summing the appropriate numbers in Column 4. For example, the number of persons in the cohort dying before reaching age 15 is:

gif

Note that this number also can be calculated as:

gif

Thus, proportion dying before reaching age 15 is:

gif

Exercise 7

Note to students: This longer exercise will require the use of spreadsheet software. Good luck!

Use the data on age-specific deaths of the Costa Rican females from Exercise 5 to construct a life table using Fergany's Method as described above. (You downloaded the data file you need here as part of Exercise 5.)

Then use your constructed life table to do the following:

  1. Draw graphs of the gif and gifcolumns. Briefly describe these graphs.
  2. Draw a graph of the age distribution of deaths (adjusting for the unequal age intervals) using thegif column in the life table. Comment on the age pattern of mortality depicted in this graph.
  3. Verify that gif is the sum of the ndxcolumn from age 65 to the end of the table.

Once you have finished your work, compare your results to the answer key below.

^Top

Answers To Exercises

Exercise 6

Question 1

The radix of the life table is usually , but may be a different number. Where in an ordinary life table can you always look to find out what the radix is?

B. In the first row of Column 3. The radix is simply the starting number of newborns for the life table. Since Column 3 gives the starting number of people at each age interval, the first row gives the number of people starting at age 0. In this case, it is ,, as usual.

Question 2

According to Column 7 of Table , a newborn in the US in may expect to reach age Once that child gets to age 50, what age would he/she expect to reach?

C.  Column 7 tells, on average, how many more years of life are expected for people who made it to the start of the age interval. So a year-old would expect another years to live on average (50 + = ).

Question 3

According to Table , of those born in the US in who make it to age 70, what percentage are expected to die before they reach age 75?

A. 14%. Column 2 gives the proportion of persons alive at the beginning of the age interval who die during the age interval. So a year-old has a (rounded to 14%) chance of dying during the age interval.

Question 4

According to Table , what is the probability of a newborn in the US in surviving to age 20?

C.  Since Column 3 gives the number of people surviving to the beginning of the age interval (98, made it to age 20) and you know the number of people that started (,), the probability of making it to age 20 is 98,/, =

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Exercise 7

Use the data on age-specific deaths of the Costa Rican females from Exercise 5 to construct a life table using Fergany's Method as described above. (You downloaded the data file you need here as part of Exercise 5.)

Then use your constructed life table to do the following:

  1. Draw graphs of the gif and gif columns. Briefly describe these graphs.
  2. Draw a graph of the age distribution of deaths (adjusting for the unequal age intervals) using thendx column in the life table. Comment on the age pattern of mortality depicted in this graph.
  3. Verify that gif is the sum of the ndxcolumn from age 65 to the end of the table.

Exercise 7, Answer: Life Table: Costa Rican Females

(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Age IntervalnmxnqxlxndxnLxTxex0
<1 year96,6,,
,6,,
,6,,
,5,,
,5,,
,4,,
,4,,
,3,,
,3,,
,2,,
,2,,
,2,,
,1,,
,1,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
85+55,55,

Then use your constructed life table to do the following:

1. Draw graphs of the gif and gif columns. Briefly describe these graphs.

gif across the Life Span for Costa Rican Females

gif

The proportion of people who die during the age interval is a little higher in the first two age intervals, low and flat until about age 45, and rises fairly steeply after that until it is for the 85+ age group.

lx across the Life Span for Costa Rican Females

gif

Naturally, the number of people alive at the start of each interval starts dropping more rapidly around age

2. Draw a graph of the age distribution of deaths (adjusting for the unequal age intervals) using thendx column in the life table. Comment on the age pattern of mortality depicted in this graph.

Age Distribution of Deaths for Costa Rican Females

gif

The greatest mortality rate is in the very first age interval. After the second age interval, mortality rates are low and flat before they start rising at around (age interval midpoint), peaking at The steep drop in the last age group is partly because of the small number of survivors and partly because it is an open-ended interval. If the table continued with five-year intervals, the drop would appear to be more gradual.

3. Verify that gif is the sum of the ndxcolumn from age 65 to the end of the table.

gif = = + + + +

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Lesson 4: Construction of Multiple-Decrement Life Tables

Back to Multiple-Decrement Life Tables Course Home

Sours: https://www.measureevaluation.org/resources/training/online-courses-and-resources/non-certificate-courses-and-mini-tutorials/multiple-decrement-life-tables/lesson-3/
Life tables#uses of life tables

The United Nations and the demographic research community at large commonly use two sets of standard model life table families to derive a variety of mortality indicators and underlying mortality patterns for estimation and projection (Coale-Demeny, and ; United Nations, ). These two sets of model life tables, designed primarily for use in developing countries or for estimating historic populations, are limited to mortality patterns for a life span from age 20 to A revised set of model life tables, extending the initials sets from life expectancy at birth (e(0)) from age up to , uses both a limited life table as an asymptotic pattern and the classic Lee-Carter approach to derive intermediate age patterns (Buettner, ).

With the extension of the projection horizon for all countries up to as part of the revision of World Population Prospects, life expectancy at birth was extended beyond years. In-depth analysis of an initial extension of the model life tables, carried out in , revealed substantial deviation for out-of-sample predictions compared to results from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) at very low mortality levels (Wilmoth and others, ) and the need for a smoother transition between the existing set of model life tables up to age 75 and above.

A new set of extended model-life tables (Gerland and Li () imposed constraints to ensure greater convergence with the HMD at high levels of life expectancy at birth. The nine sets of regional model life tables (four Coale-Demeny model life-table regional patterns (East, North, South and West) and five United Nations model life-table regional patterns (Latin American, Chilean, South Asian, Far Eastern, General), extended up to years of life expectancy at birth, were blended with the existing ones to ensure smooth mortality surfaces by age and sex and levels of life expectancy at birth.

The new model life tables are available by abridged age groups (,,, etc.) and by single year of age (0,1,2,3, etc.) (United Nations, ). In both cases the life tables have been extended up to age Each dataset is available for life expectancy at birth from age 20 up to by 1 year or year increment.

References

Sours: https://www.un.org/development/desa/pd/data/model-life-tables

Life tables who

Mortality Table

What Is a Mortality Table?

A mortality table, also known as a life table or actuarial table, shows the rate of deaths occurring in a defined population during a selected time interval, or survival rates from birth to death. A mortality table typically shows the general probability of a person's death before their next birthday, based on their current age. These tables are typically used in order to inform the construction of insurance policies and other forms of liability management. 

Key Takeaways

  • Mortality tables show the rate of death within a specific population. 
  • Mortality tables use a large number of factors to predict the likelihood of death in an individual within the current year.
  • Mortality tables are used heavily by insurance companies and the U.S. Social Security Administration.
  • Mortality tables are generally split into “period” life tables and “cohort” life tables. 
  • For the purposes of actuaries, “cohort” tables are most often used. 

How a Mortality Table Works

Mortality tables are mathematically complex grids of numbers that show the probability of death for members of a given population within a defined period of time, based on a large number of factored variables. Mortality tables tend to differ in their construction when being catered to men and women are usually constructed separately for men and women.

Other characteristics can also be included to distinguish different risks, such as smoking status, occupation, and socio-economic class. There are even actuarial tables that determine longevity in relation to weight. 

The life insurance industry relies heavily on mortality tables, as does the U.S. Social Security Administration. Both use mortality tables in order to best establish details surrounding their coverage policies based on the individuals they will cover. 

Mortality tables were first introduced by Raymond Pearl in for the purposes of furthering ecological studies

Types of Mortality Tables

In general practice, there are two types of mortality tables. First, the period life table is used to determine mortality rates for a specific time period of a certain population. The other type of actuarial life table is called the cohort life table, also referred to as a generation life table. It is used to represent the overall mortality rates of a certain population's entire lifetime. Between the two, the cohort life table is most often used due to its higher applicability to actuarialism. 

Requirements for Mortality Tables 

Mortality tables are based on characteristics, such as gender and age. A mortality table gives probabilities based on deaths per thousand, or the number of people per 1, living who are expected to die in a given year. Life insurance companies use mortality tables to help determine premiums and to make sure the insurance company remains solvent.

Mortality tables typically cover from birth through age , in one-year increments. You can use a mortality table to look up the probability of death for someone of any age. Not surprisingly, the probability of death increases with age.

To use mortality tables, you first need the age of an individual to see what the table says about the chances that they will die when compared with the rest of the group. In the case of a newborn male, there is less than one half of one,th of a percent that he will die when compared with the rest of the group. That would give him a life expectancy of around However, according to the mortality table used by the Social Security Administration, a year-old man has a more than 90 percent chance of dying when compared with the rest of the group, or a life expectancy of just over six months.

Sours: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/mortality-table.asp
Life tables#uses of life tables

Life Tables

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Methods

U.S. Small-area Life Expectancy Estimates Project: Methodology and Results Summary. Series 2, Number  40 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 8 MB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 61, Number 3. 63 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
This report presents the latest methodology used to estimate the U.S. life tables.

United States Life Tables by Hispanic Origin. Series 2, Number 41 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

Method for Constructing Complete Annual U.S. Life Tables. Series 2, Number 32 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

Comparison of Two Methods of Constructing Abridged Life Tables. Series 2, Number 4, 11 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Method of Constructing the Abridged Life Tables for the United States, . Vital Statistics – Special Reports. Selected Studies Volume 33, Number 15, pdf icon[PDF – MB]

 

Life Tables

U.S. State Life Tables, NVSR Volume 70, Number 1. 18pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 69, Number 45pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 68, Number 7. 66pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 68, Number 4. 65pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 67, Number 7. 64pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 66, Number 4. 64pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 66, Number 3. 65 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 65, Number 8. 65 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 64, Number 63 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
These life tables have been adjusted for race and ethnicity misclassification on death certificates using updated classification ratios. See the Technical Notes for United States Life Tables, pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 63, Number 7. 16 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]
These life tables have been adjusted for race and ethnicity misclassification on death certificates using updated classification ratios. See the Technical Notes for United States Life Tables, pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 62, Number 63 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 61, Number 3. 63 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 59, Number 9. 61 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables by Hispanic Origin. Series 2, Number 41 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 58, Number  40 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 58, Number   pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, . NVSR Volume 56, Number 9.  40 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB] All annual life tables have been revised for the years A new report, “United States Life Tables, ” (NVSR Volume 58, Number 10) contains the revised tables.
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 54, Number 40 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB] All annual life tables have been revised for the years A new report, “United States Life Tables, ” (NVSR Volume 58, Number 10) contains the revised tables.
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 53, Number 6. 39 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB] All annual life tables have been revised for the years A new report, “United States Life Tables, ” (NVSR Volume 58, Number 10) contains the revised tables.
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Volume 52, Number 39 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB] All annual life tables have been revised for the years A new report, “United States Life Tables, ” (NVSR Volume 58, Number 10) contains the revised tables.
These tables are updated using revised intercensal population estimates and a new methodology implemented with the final life tables. pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, NVSR Vol. 51, No. 3. 39 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB] All annual life tables have been revised for the years A new report, “United States Life Tables, ” (NVSR Volume 58, Number 10) contains the revised tables.

United States Life Tables, NVSR Vol. 50, No. 6. 39 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]

United States Life Tables, Vol. 48, No. 39 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Life Tables, Vol. 47, No. 40 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

United States Abridged Life Tables, Vol. 47, No. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. 28 pp. (PHS) GPO stock number price $ pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. 28 pp. (PHS) GPO stock number price $ pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. 28 pp. (PHS) GPO stock number: price: $ pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. 20 pp. (PHS) GPO stock number: price: $
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Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. April 26 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. September 27 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. December 26 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. March 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. February 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. October 22 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. January 19 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. March 22 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 3 MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. September 22 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. July 20 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 6. May 21 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5.  18 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5.  18 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 20 pp. (OM) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5.  20 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 20 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 17 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 25 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 19 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 19 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 17 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 17 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Vital Statistics of the United States, Life Tables, Vol. II, Section 5. 17 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for to

 

United States Life Tables Eliminating Certain Causes of Death, –. NVSR Volume 61, Number pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , United States Life Tables. NVSR Volume 57, Number 1. 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Methodology of the United States Life Tables. NVSR Volume 57, Number 4. 10 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , State Life Tables. NVSR Volume 60, Number 9. 68 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]
Complete life tables for each state are available at: United States Decennial Life Tables, State Life Tables

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for to

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume 1, Number 1, United States Life Tables. 44 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume 1, Number 2, Methodology of the National and State Life Tables. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume 1, Number 3, Some Trends and Comparisons of U.S. Life Table Data: pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume 1, Number 4, Eliminating Certain Causes of Death, pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 1, Alabama. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 2, Alaska. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 3, Arizona. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 4, Arkansas. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 5, California. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 6, Colorado. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 7, Connecticut. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 8, Delaware. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 9, District of Columbia. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 10, Florida. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 11, Georgia. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 12, Hawaii. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 13, Idaho. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 14, Illinois. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 15, Indiana. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 16, Iowa. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 17, Kansas. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 18, Kentucky. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 19, Louisiana. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 20, Maine. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 21, Maryland. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 22, Massachusetts. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 23, Michigan. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 24, Minnesota. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 25, Mississippi. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 26, Missouri. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 27, Montana. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 28, Nebraska. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 29, Nevada. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 30, New Hampshire. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 31, New Jersey. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 32, New Mexico. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 33, New York. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 34, North Carolina. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 35, North Dakota. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 36, Ohio. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 37, Oklahoma. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 38, Oregon. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 39, Pennsylvania. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 40, Rhode Island. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 41, South Carolina. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 42, South Dakota. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 43, Tennessee. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 44, Texas. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 45, Utah. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 46, Vermont. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 47, Virginia. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 48, Washington. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 49, West Virginia. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 50, Wisconsin. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, Number 51, Wyoming. pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for to

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume I, Number 1, United States Life Tables, August 41 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume I, Number 2, United States Life Tables, Eliminating Certain Causes of Death. Curtin, L.R. and Armstrong, R.J. July 93 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume I, Number 3. Methodology of the National and State Life Tables. Armstrong, R.J. and Curtin, L.R. May 23 pp. (PHS)
pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume I, Number 4. Some Trend Comparisons of United States Life-Table Data: Armstrong, R.J. June 18 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – 1 MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 1, Alabama, August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 2, Alaska. August 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 3, Arizona. August 31 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 4, Arkansas. August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 5, California. August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 6, Colorado. August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 7, Connecticut. August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 8, Delaware. August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 9, District of Columbia. August 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 10, Florida. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 11, Georgia. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 12, Hawaii. December 31 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 13, Idaho. December 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 14, Illinois. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 15, Indiana. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 16, Iowa. December 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 17, Kansas. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 18, Kentucky. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 19, Louisiana. December 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 20, Maine. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 21, Maryland. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 22, Massachusetts. January 37pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 23, Michigan. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 24, Minnesota. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 25, Mississippi. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 26, Missouri. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 27, Montana. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 28, Nebraska. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 29, Nevada. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 30, New Hampshire. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 31, New Jersey. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 32, New Mexico. January 31 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 33, New York. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 34, North Carolina. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 35, North Dakota. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 36, Ohio. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 37, Oklahoma. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 38, Oregon. January 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 39, Pennsylvania. January 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 40, Rhode Island. February 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 41, South Carolina. February 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 42, South Dakota. February 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 43, Tennessee. February 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 44, Texas. February 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 45, Utah. February 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 46, Vermont. February 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 47, Virginia. February 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 48, Washington. February 31 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 49, West Virginia. February 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 50, Wisconsin. February 37 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for , Volume II, State Life Tables, No. 51, Wyoming. February 25 pp. (PHS) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for to

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 1, Number 1. U.S. Life Tables, May 36 pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 1, Number 2. Actuarial Tables Based on U.S. Life Tables, May 78 pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 1, Number 3. Methodology of the National and State Life Tables for the United States, May 21 pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 1, Number 4. Some Trends and Comparisons of U.S. Life Table Data, May 18 pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – KB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 1, Number 5. U.S. Life Tables by Causes of Death, May 69 pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 2, Numbers State Life Tables, Alabama-Missouri. June pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for . Volume 2, Numbers State Life Tables, Montana-Wyoming. June pp. (HRA) pdf icon[PDF – MB]

 

U.S. Decennial Life Tables for to

Life Tables: . Volume 1, No. 1. United States Life Tables: December June 32 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . Volume 1, No. 2. Actuarial Tables Based on United States. 29 pp. pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]

Life Tables: . December 23 pp. Not available.

Life Tables: . Volume 1, No. 3. Life Tables for the Geographic Divisions of the United States: May 82 pp. pdf icon[PDF – 6 MB]

Life Tables: . Volume 1, No. 4. Methodology of the National, Regional, and State Life Tables. October 32 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . Volume 1, No. 5. Life Tables for Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States: December 40 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . Volume 1, No United States Life Tables by Causes of Death: May 72 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . June pp.

Life Tables: . Volume 2, Nos. State. pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . Volume 2, Nos. State. June pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . June pp. Not available.

Life Tables: . Volume 41, Numbers 1 through 5. United States. pp. pdf icon[PDF – 6 MB]

Life Tables: . Volume 41 Supplement. State. pp. pdf icon[PDF – 12 MB]

Life Tables: . United States and Actuarial. pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . State and Regional. pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . United States and Registration States. to , to , to , to , to , to 61 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: . United States Abridged. 84 pp. pdf icon[PDF – MB]

Life Tables: , , , and . pp. pdf icon[PDF – 21 MB]

Sours: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/life_tables.htm

Now discussing:

One important method of assessing the health of a population is to ask how long people can expect to live.  Life expectancy, usually reported at birth although it can be applied to other ages as well, is a commonly used summary measure which can also be used to compare against countries.  Life expectancy is calculated using life tables.

Life tables

A life table is a table which shows, for a person at each age, what the probability is that they die before their next birthday. From this starting point, a number of statistics can be derived and thus also included in the table is:

  • the probability of surviving any particular year of age
  • the remaining life expectancy for people at different ages
  • the proportion of the original birth cohort still alive.

Life tables are usually constructed separately for men and for women because of their substantially different mortality rates.

Life tables are also used in biology.

Construction of life tables

Age specific mortality rates are applied to a notional population, typically of ,  Starting at birth, the probability of dying in each period is applied to the number of people surviving to the beginning of the period, so that the initial figure slowly reduces to zero. The different elements required for a life table include (using standard notations):

Ix        

Number of survivors at age x

nqx     

Probability of dying between age x and x+n

nDx    

Number of deaths between age x and x+n

nLx     

Number of person years lived between age x and x+n

Tx       

Total number of person years lived after age x

ex       

Life expectancy at age x

This sort of life table is based on current age-specific death rates for each age or age band used and are called period life tables and are the most frequently used type.  In contrast, actual life expectancy of a particular birth cohort can only be calculated when everyone in this cohort is dead.  This approach uses a cohort life table and requires data over many years to prepare just a single complete cohort life table.

Example

An example of how a life table can be constructed and the mathematics involved can be downloaded from the simple interactive statistical analysis website
http://www.quantitativeskills.com/downloads/#Lifetable [accessed 07/01/].

Strength

Summary measure of mortality providing an overall picture of mortality, allowing countries and regions to be compared. 

Weaknesses

Hypothetical measure that has the potential to be misunderstood by general public/media.

It does not say much about who is still alive, and their quality of life; for example, how many years are lived with disability before dying.  This has led to attempts to bring together morbidity and mortality, with measures such as Health Adjusted Life Expectancy and Disability Adjusted Life Years.

Health Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)

This is calculated by subtracting from the life expectancy a figure which is the number of years lived with disability multiplied by a weighting to represent the effect of the disability. 

If       A = years lived healthily

          B = years lived with disability

          A+B = life expectancy

          A+fB = healthy life expectancy, where f is a weighting to reflect
                      disability level. 

N.B. This raises all sorts of moral questions on who defines and measures disability level and how they do it. 

Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY)

Conversely, DALYs combine death and years lived with disability to estimate the burden of disease on populations, and DALYs were used in the Global Burden of Disease study to enable mortality and morbidity comparisons across countries.  Weightings were applied to conditions by using the time trade off approach, in which people were asked to consider living more years in imperfect health compared with fewer years in perfect health.  The study also placed more weight on the life of a young adult compared with a new born. 

http://www.who.int/healthinfo/bodproject/en/index.html [accessed 07/01/].

Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

A measure related to HALE and DALY, this measure attempts to quantify the potential years of life lost by looking at average age of death from conditions compared to average life expectancy. PYLL can be expressed absolutely or as a rate relative to the population at risk.

Other applications

Other characteristics can also be used to distinguish different risk factors for life expectancy, such as smoking-status, occupation, socio-economic class, and others.  More complex analyses for assessing cancer survival, that involves comparisons between two populations or a population in two points in time can also be undertaken.

In addition to public health domains, life tables are also used by insurance companies and actuary departments.

When used in biology, age specific fertility rates are also included in the calculations.

When data have not been available, such as in low income countries, life tables have been modelled using what data are available, usually childhood mortality data.

© M Goodyear & N Malhotra, , M Goodyear and S Seager

Sours: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/life-tables-demographic-applications


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