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The Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. was founded by Orville Gibson in 1902. Located in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Gibson founded the company to make mandolin-family instruments. By the 1930s, the company was also making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars, used and popularized by Charlie Christian.

In recent years, counterfeit versions of the popular guitar ave surfaced. Below are some checklist items to determine if yours is real.

Gibson Guitars - Step 1, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 1, picture 2

1

Chinese counterfeiters are starting to improve their fakes to the point where it's almost impossible for a beginner to know whether a Gibson is made by Gibson USA or some factory in China!

First of all, if anyone, especially a seller based in China is selling a Gibson Les Paul for an alarmingly low price, you probably want to pass. A good deal is not a good deal if it's fake.


Gibson Guitars - Step 2, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 2, picture 2

2

Here's an example of a fake headstock. notice that the "Gibson" is painted on. The real Gibson, on the left, shows the Gibson is an inlay of Mother of Pearl.


Gibson Guitars - Step 3, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 3, picture 2

3

Here are two more fake headstocks. The one on the left is pretty bad. It doesn't have the Mother of Pearl "Gibson" or crown inlay.

The one on the right was actually on eBay. There is nothing right about that one.


Gibson Guitars - Step 4, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 4, picture 2

4

Next, check for the serial number on the back of the headstock. It should have a serial number on top. Modern numbers are 9 digits but older/vintage Gibson guitars are much shorter. It should also have "Made in USA" underneath the serial number. Only the newer ones have the year on them so it's not necessarily a fake if it's not there.

Fakes usually have the serial number either engraved too deep into the wood or inked (with too much ink). Keep in mind, Gibson never inked serial numbers on the Gibson Les Paul Standard but they did ink the custom shop series and some Les Paul Classics. Another thing to look for is whether the numbers are too close. Fakes are often too close.

The fake one on the right has no serial number at all. Definitely a fake!

You can search for your serial number at The Guitar Dater Project. It will return the birth date of your guitar and the manufacturing plant. Excellent Resource!


Gibson Guitars - Step 5, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 5, picture 2

5

Next, look at the truss rod cover. On the top screw, the real one has very little space between the screw and the outside of the cover. The fake has much more and is crudely cut.


Gibson Guitars - Step 6, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 6, picture 2

6

Next, look at the bridge. The fake one has a screw slot where the bridge recesses on it. The real one is solid.


Gibson Guitars - Step 7, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 7, picture 2

7

Next, look at the binding on the headstock. The real one is thin and the fake one takes up over half of the headstock thickness.


Gibson Guitars - Step 8, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 8, picture 2

8

Next, look at the frets. They should extend all the way to the binding. On the real one, you can see the binding actually rides up, just a little, on the fret. The fake doesn't make it to the edge.


Gibson Guitars - Step 9, picture 1Gibson Guitars - Step 9, picture 2

9

And make sure there are no scarf joints.

Link to This Page

To link to this page from your website, simply click inside the box, then copy and then paste the code to your web page.

Sours: http://www.detectafake.com/viewProduct/?269612

Showrooms at the recent New York Tabletop Show provided ample evidence of companies re-positioning themselves in licensing and distribution to offset a shrinking number of department stores that were once central to the industry’s business.

IL0416johndeereGibson USA’s John Deere collection

Ecommerce retailers such as Wayfair and Amazon are playing a larger role in the tabletop market, but so are some unusual entrants such as Home Depot, which carries dinnerware online from Certified International and others. Grocery chains also are a relatively new entrant to the business, while Gibson USA is seeking a home for its John Deere mugs, water bottles, children’s melamine dinnerware and other products at Tractor Supply Co., Fleet Farm and sporting goods chains.

“The footprint {for tabletop] is shrinking” [at brick and mortar stores]. Where some chains once had four displays, many are now down to one,” says Certified International VP Stephen Santulli. Certified, which sells dinnerware based on licensed artists (Debra Valencia, Susan Winget, Tre Sorelle). Certified has seen ecommerce grow to 20% of annual revenue from zero five years ago, due partly to the addition of Home Depot.

Among our other the observations:

  • Lenox Corp., with new management, has embarked on a re-branding campaign that will sharpen focus on its core Lenox, Dansk and Reed & Barton labels and seek to build programs with well-known licenses, says CMO Andrea Page, who joined the company in January.

That’s is a departure for Lenox, which has largely focused on separate licensed collections in the past, including those with interior design magazine Domino Media, architect Luca Andrisani and potter Michael Wainwright. Lenox has parted with Wainwright and is working with Kate Spade to bring out tabletop products (mugs, water bottles) that more closely mesh with Kate Spade’s handbags and apparel as they are being introduced.

IL0416katespadeLenox Corp.’s Kate Spade dinnerware

“For brands we license, we are looking for the next Kate Spade that already has a true identity, and we aren’t looking for agreements with brands that aren’t built up already,” says Page. “We want to add companies [licensees] that need our expertise versus someone who is an up-and -coming architect or designer.”

Lenox cut the number of new collections displayed at the tabletop show by half, part of a general paring back among all its brands.  In the case of Reed & Barton, licensed Thomas O’Brien dinnerware will likely be phased out, says a Lenox spokeswoman. The brand will continue for barware, flatware and giftware.

“It is more getting back to our bread and butter and let Lenox focus on dinnerware, which is the foundation of the {Lenox] brand, but really isn’t for Reed and Barton,” says a Lenox spokeswoman.

Lenox also will launch new websites for Lenox, Reed & Barton and Dansk brands in September. Licensed brands will be part of the Lenox website. And the Dansk brand will be positioned for outbound licensing for the first time for lifestyle products such as furniture, lighting, table linens and bedding, says Page.

“For a long time, we waited for retailers to tell us what to do. Now we have to take back control and we have to set limits and standards,” says Page. “Right now, we don’t have a guide book, but for success there has to be a true identity in what the brands represent.”

  • Gibson USA will expand its assortment of Peanuts Lunch Time Pals products (lunch backpacks, hydration bottles) with a slightly higher-priced line that seeks to extend distribution from drug and off-price retailers to specialty retailers such as Crate & Barrel and Pottery Barn, says Gibson’s David Nicklin. The new line will be timed to coincide with the Peanuts’ 70th anniversary in 2020. Meanwhile, the John Deere line ship in June.
  • Cambridge Silversmiths will launch its licensed celebrity chef Robert Irvine kitchen prep, cutlery and hydration products on QVC later this spring, says Brand Liaison CEO Stephen Heller, whose firm represents the brand. Irvine is best known for his Food Network show “Restaurant Impossible.”
  • Fiskar’s Waterford brand launched with celebrity floral designer Jeff Leatham-licensed collections of eight, 10-, 12- and 15-inch vases priced $295-$2,000. The agreement with Leatham, who also is artistic director for the Four Seasons George V Hotel in Paris, reinstates a deal that previously ended in 2014. Meanwhile, Fiskars also extended the Ellen DeGeneres license for its Royal Daulton brand to include mugs and accent plates.

Contacts:

Certified International, Stephen Santulli, VP, 914-741-1332 x102, [email protected]

Fiskars/Waterford, Deidre Courtney, Global Brand Mgr., 732-835-4663, [email protected]

Gibson USA, David Nicklin, VP Marketing and Licensing, 323-832-8900 x1507, [email protected]

Lenox Corp., Andrea Page, CMO, 267-525-5065, [email protected]

Sours: https://licensinginternational.org/news/tabletop-companies-adjusting-distribution-and-brand-strategies/
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the first symptom of a cold is usually a sore throat. this is generally followed by sneezing or a blocked, sore or runny nose. usually, 1 in 3 people with a cold will get a cough and feel unwell.

colds are caused by viruses. antibiotics cannot treat viruses. instead, drink plenty of liquids to replace those lost from sweating and runny noses. get lots of rest and eat healthily. do not ask your gp for antibiotics for a cold.

you will usually feel worse during the first 2 to 3 days before gradually starting to improve. your symptoms will usually last about a week.

cold and flu symptoms are similar but flu tends to be more severe.

cold

  • appears gradually
  • affects mainly your nose and throat
  • makes you feel unwell but you're ok to carry on as normal - for example, go to work

flu

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  • appears quickly within a few hours
  • affects more than just your nose and throat
  • makes you feel exhausted and too unwell to carry on as normal

cold symptoms can include:

  • blocked or runny nose
  • sore throat
  • headaches
  • muscle aches
  • coughs
  • sneezing
  • a raised temperature
  • pressure in your ears and face
  • loss of taste and smell

the symptoms are the same in adults and children. sometimes, symptoms last longer in children.

causes of colds

colds are caused by viruses. they can easily spread to other people. you're infectious until all your symptoms have gone. this usually takes about a week.

colds are spread by germs from coughs and sneezes which can live on hands and surfaces for 24 hours.

to reduce the risk of spreading a cold you should:

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  • cough into your elbow to stop germs getting on to your hands and spreading to other people
  • use tissues to trap germs when you cough or sneeze
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how to prevent catching a cold

the best ways to avoid catching a cold are:

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  • not sharing towels or household items, like cups, with someone who has a cold
  • not touching your eyes or nose. you can infect your body if you've come into contact with the virus.
  • staying fit and healthy
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Gibson

American guitar manufacturer

This article is about the guitar company. For other uses, see Gibson (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 36°07′48″N86°43′33″W / 36.1298758°N 86.7257458°W / 36.1298758; -86.7257458

Gibson Brands, Inc. (formerly Gibson Guitar Corporation) is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, and professional audio equipment from Kalamazoo, Michigan, and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was formerly known as Gibson Guitar Corporation and renamed Gibson Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013.[5][6]

Orville Gibson started making instruments in 1894 and founded the company in 1902 as the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments.[1] Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was also making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars, used and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments (CMI), which was acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited (ECL), that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson was owned by Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by a group led by Henry Juszkiewicz and David H. Berryman. In November 2018, the company was acquired by a group of investors led by private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts.

Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names[7] and builds one of the world's best-known guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars, especially in the big band era of the 1930s; the Gibson Super 400 was widely imitated. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date—designed by a team led by Ted McCarty.

In addition to guitars, Gibson offers consumer electronics through the Gibson Pro Audio division, which includes KRK.

On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection,[8] and announced a restructuring plan to return to profitability by closing down unprofitable consumer electronics divisions such as Gibson Innovations.[9][10] The company exited Chapter 11 bankruptcy in November 2018.[11][12]

In January 2020, the company launched Gibson TV, an online television network focused on guitars and music culture.[13][14]

History[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

Orville Gibson patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898 that was more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.[15] Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. Initially, the company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs.[16] Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis (inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and valves).[15]

The following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments.[16] Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F-5 mandolin that was introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924.[17] In 1936, Gibson introduced its first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars, banjos and mandolins.

During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, and Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942–1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied ever building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company. Gibson folklore has also claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war."[18][19]

In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950. He led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952, endorsed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s. The guitar was offered in Custom, Standard, Special, and Junior models.[20]

In the mid-1950s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland. The first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Byrd and Hank Garland. Later, a shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives.[21] In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain.

In the 1950s, Gibson also produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF ("Patent Applied For"), first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.[citation needed]

In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially. It was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea, though less extreme.

Modernization[edit]

In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design.[22] The new body design then became known as the SG (for "solid guitar"), due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The original Les Paul design returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968.

On December 22, 1969, Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries which was named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin. This began an era characterized by corporate mismanagement and decreasing product quality.

Between 1976 and 1984, production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee. The Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years as a custom-instrument shop, but was closed in 1984; several Gibson employees led by plant manager Jim Duerloo, plant superintendent Marv Lamb and J.P. Moats established Heritage Guitars in the old factory, building versions of classic Gibson designs.

The company was within three months of going out of business before it was bought by Henry E. Juszkiewicz, David H. Berryman, and Gary A. Zebrowski in January 1986.[23] Gibson's wholesale shipments in 1993 were an estimated $70 million, up from $50 million in 1992. When Juszkiewicz and Berryman took over in 1986, sales were below $10 million.[24] New production plants were opened in Memphis, Tennessee, as well as Bozeman, Montana. The Memphis facility is used for semi-hollow and custom shop instruments, while the Bozeman facility is dedicated to acoustic instruments.

Since 2007[edit]

Gibson purchased Garrison Guitars in 2007.[25] In mid-2009, Gibson reduced its work force to adjust for a decline in guitar industry sales in the United States.[26]

In 2011, Gibson acquired the Stanton Group, including Cerwin Vega, KRK Systems and Stanton DJ. Gibson then formed a new division, Gibson Pro Audio, which will deliver professional grade audio items, including headphones, loudspeakers and DJ equipment.[27] In June 2020, Cerwin Vega Inc. acquired Cerwin Vega from Gibson.[28] On May 21, 2021, Stanton was sold to inMusic.[29]

Gibson announced a partnership with the Japanese-based Onkyo Corporation in 2012. Onkyo, known for audio equipment and home theater systems, became part of the Gibson Pro-Audio division.[30] In 2013, Gibson acquired a majority stake in TEAC Corporation. In 2014, Gibson acquired the Woox consumer electronics brand from Royal Philips. In October 2017, Gibson announced plans to relocate its Memphis operations to a smaller location and plans to sell the Memphis property. Gibson opened its Memphis facility 18 years before, which occupies just a portion of a massive 127,620 square foot complex. According to the Memphis Daily News, Gibson plans to search for a new facility for its Memphis operations and will stay in the current spot for the next 18 to 24 months. The facility, which sits across from the FedExForum along South B.B. King Boulevard, is expected to list for $17 million.

Since its opening, the Gibson Memphis shop mostly focused on building hollow and semi-hollowbody guitars, such as the famed ES series. Presumably, this shuffling of assets was meant to address Gibson's well-publicized financial troubles.

Gibson issued a press release about the move, with former CEO Henry Juszkiewicz stating:

"We are extremely excited about this next phase of growth that we believe will benefit both our employees, and the Memphis community. I remember when our property had abandoned buildings, and Beale Street was in decline. It is with great pride that I can see the development of this area with a basketball arena, hotels, and a resurgent pride in the musical heritage of the great city of Memphis. We continue to love the Memphis community and hope to be a key contributor to its future when we move nearby to a more appropriate location for our manufacturing based business, allowing the world the benefit of our great American craftsmen."[31]

In December 2017, the Gibson Guitar Factory building, Downtown Memphis was sold to Somera Road, an investment company in New York. Two years later Gibson closed the Memphis factory and moved hollow-body production to Nashville. It also moved its Nashville headquarters to Cummins Station in 2019.[32][33] Gibson also started shipping Murphy Lab guitars through its Murphy Lab Division of the Gibson Custom Shop in March 2021. The opening of this division was announced in December 2019.[34][35]

Bankruptcy[edit]

On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. As part of its debt restructuring, the company closed and liquidated the unprofitable Gibson Innovations division, which was focused on selling audio equipment outside of the U.S., allowing Gibson to focus on its most profitable ventures, such as musical instruments. The production of Gibson and Epiphone branded guitars was not interrupted by the bankruptcy. Additionally, $135 million was provided by existing creditors to provide liquidity to maintain existing operations.[36][37]

On September 6, 2018, the company announced that a global settlement had been reached, with a reorganization plan for the company to emerge from Chapter 11. Under the plan the company would focus on its core musical instruments business with "essentially no debt". Juszkiewicz stepped down as CEO and assumed the role of consultant.[38]

On October 23, 2018, the company announced the appointment of James "JC" Curleigh as the new President and CEO; Cesar Gueikian as Chief Merchant Officer; Kim Mattoon as Chief Financial Officer; and Christian Schmitz as Chief Production Officer. The appointments were effective November 1, 2018.[39] The company exited Chapter 11 bankruptcy in November 2018.[11][12]

In July 2021, Gibson announced the launch of Gibson Records, a record label focused on releasing "guitar-centric music, across genres", with their first album being an upcoming project from Slash feat. Myles Kennedy & The Conspirators.[40]

Legal actions[edit]

Origin of "lawsuit guitars"[edit]

In 1977, Gibson sued Hoshino Gakki/Elger Guitars for copying the ”archtop” headstock. The lawsuit was settled out of court, and Ibanez replaced the headstock with a revised design.[41]

In 2000, Gibson sued Fernandes Guitars in a Tokyo court for allegedly copying Gibson designs. Gibson did not prevail.[42]

PRS[edit]

Gibson also sued PRS Guitars in 2005, to stop them from making their Singlecut model. Initially successful,[43] the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed the lower court's decision and ordered the dismissal of Gibson's suit against PRS.[44]

FWS raids & Lacey Act violation[edit]

Gibson's factories were raided in 2009 and 2011 by agents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). In November 2009, authorities found illegally imported ebony wood from Madagascar.[45][46] A second raid was conducted in August 2011,[45] during which the FWS seized wood imports from India that had been mislabeled on the US Customs declaration.[47][48] Gibson Guitar Corp. filed a motion in January 2011 to recover seized materials and overturn the charges, which was denied by the court.[49][50]

The United States Department of Justice found emails from 2008 and 2009 in which Gibson employees discussed the "gray market" nature of the ebony wood available from a German wood dealer—who obtained it from a supplier in Madagascar—as well as plans to obtain the wood. It filed a civil proceeding in June 2011,[48][51][52] the first such case under the amended Lacey Act, which requires importing companies to purchase legally harvested wood and follow the environmental laws of the producing countries regardless of corruption or lack of enforcement.[52] Gibson argued in a statement the following day that authorities were "bullying Gibson without filing charges" and denied any wrongdoing.[47][53] Arguing against the federal regulations and claiming that the move threatened jobs, Republicans and Tea Party members spoke out against the raids and supported Juszkiewicz.[54]

The case was settled on August 6, 2012, with Gibson admitting to violating the Lacey Act and agreeing to pay a fine of $300,000 in addition to a $50,000 community payment. Gibson also forfeited the wood seized in the raids, which was valued at roughly the same amount as the settlement.[55][56] However, in a subsequent statement Gibson maintained its innocence with Juszkiewicz claiming that "Gibson was inappropriately targeted" and that the government raids were "so outrageous and overreaching as to deserve further Congressional investigation." Juszkiewicz continued to state, "We felt compelled to settle as the costs of proving our case at trial would have cost millions of dollars and taken a very long time to resolve."[57]

Gibson reclaimed some wood stock that was confiscated during the raids,[58] and produced a new series of guitar marketed to draw attention to the raids and seizures.[59]

In the midst of the controversy, conservative commentators alleged that the raid was a politically motivated act of retaliation by the Obama administration, as Juszkiewicz had frequently donated to Republican politicians. Chris Martin IV, the CEO of Gibson competitor C.F. Martin & Co., had donated over $35,000 to the Democratic National Committee and Democratic candidates in the same time period. Though Martin featured several guitars in its catalog made with the same Indian wood as Gibson, but with correct documentation filed, the company was not subjected to a raid.[60]

Paper Jamz[edit]

Gibson filed a lawsuit November 18, 2010, in Federal court, the Central District of California, against WowWee USA and their Paper Jamz battery operated guitar toys charging trademark infringement.[61][62] The lawsuit claimed the Paper Jamz toy guitars copied the looks of some of Gibson's famous guitars, the Gibson Les Paul, the Gibson Flying V, the Gibson Explorer, and the Gibson SG. On December 21, 2010 Gibson was granted a request for an injunction against WowWee and retailers in the United States which were selling Paper Jamz guitars: Walmart, Amazon, Big Lots stores, Kmart Corporation, Target Corporation, Toys "R" Us, Walgreens, Brookstone, Best Buy, eBay, Toywiz.com, and Home Shopping Network (HSN)[63][64][65] The case was dismissed with prejudice (dismissed permanently) January 11, 2011 by Federal Judge R. Gary Klausner.[66][67]

Kiesel Guitars[edit]

Gibson sent a cease and desist letter to Kiesel concerning two models that Kiesel makes - the ultra V and the 'California Singlecut.' According to Jeff Kiesel, Vice President of Kiesel, the letter claims that Kiesel's design infringes upon the Flying V design of Gibson. [68]

Warwick/Framus[edit]

German manufacturer Warwick was sued by Gibson with the claim that one of the models sold under the 'Framus' brand imitated the Flying V and that customers were being misled due to this. Gibson sought a stop on the sales of these guitars and also stated that "Warwick was unfairly exploiting the reputation of Gibson Guitars." The Hamburg regional court initially ruled in favour of Gibson in 2017. However, successive judgements from the Higher Regional Court and the Federal Supreme Court in November 2020 and September 2021 dismissed Gibson's lawsuits. [69][70]

Instruments[edit]

Further information: Gibson Guitar Corporation product list

Gibson also owns and makes instruments under brands such as Epiphone,[71]Kramer,[72]Maestro,[73]Steinberger,[74] and Tobias,[75] along with the ownership of historical brands such as Kalamazoo,[76][77]Dobro,[7]Valley Arts,[78] and Baldwin[7] (including Chickering,[78] Hamilton,[78] and Wurlitzer[7][78]). It also owned Slingerland Drum Company but it was sold to Drum Workshop in November 2019.[79] Gibson relaunched Kramer Guitars at Winter NAMM 2020 on January 16. Icon, Baretta, Pacer, Focus , and SM-1 are in the original collection with the modern collection including Assault, Striker , Nite-V, and Bass. The artists collaborations for the relaunched Kramer Guitar includes Tracii Guns 'Gunstar Voyager,' the Charlie Parra 'Vanguard' and the Dave Sabo 'Snake-Baret.[80]

Gibson makes authorized copies of its most successful guitar designs. They are less expensive than those bearing the Gibson name.[clarification needed] A former competitor, Epiphone, was purchased by Gibson in 1957 and now makes competitively-priced Gibson models, such as the Les Paul and SG, sold under the Epiphone brand,[81] while continuing to make Epiphone-specific models like the Sheraton, Sorrento, and Casino. In Japan, Orville by Gibson once made Gibson designs sold in that country.[82] Gibson has sought legal action against those that make and sell guitars Gibson believes are too similar to their own.

In 1977, Gibson introduced the serial numbering system in use until 2006.[83] An eight-digit number on the back shows the date when the instrument was produced, where it was produced, and its order of production that day (e.g., first instrument stamped that day, second, etc.).[84] An exception is the year 1994, Gibson's centennial year; many 1994 serial numbers start with "94", followed by a six-digit production number[citation needed]. As of 2006, the company used seven (six since 1999) serial number systems,[83][clarification needed] making it difficult to identify guitars by their serial number alone. The Gibson website provides a book to help with serial number deciphering.[83][84]

In 2006, Gibson introduced a nine-digit serial number system replacing the eight-digit system used since 1977, but the sixth digit now represents a batch number.[83][clarification needed]

In 2003,[85] Gibson debuted its Ethernet-based[86] audio protocol, MaGIC, which it developed in partnership with 3Com, Advanced Micro Devices, and Xilinx.[85] Replacing traditional analog hook-ups with a digital connection to "satisfy the unique requirements of live audio performances".[86] This system requires a special pickup,[85] and cabling is provided by a standard Cat-5 Ethernet cable.[85][86]

The Gibson "self-tuning guitar", also known as a "robot model", an option on some newer Les Paul, SG, Flying V and Explorer instruments, tunes itself in about two seconds using robotics technology developed by Tronical GmbH.[87] Under the tradename Min-ETune, this device became standard on several models in 2014.[88]

In 2013, Gibson introduced the Government Series of Les Paul, SG, Flying V, Explorer and ES-335 guitars which were constructed solely of tonewood the US government seized but later returned to Gibson after the resolution of the company's Lacey Act violation in 2011. The guitars were finished in "government grey" and also featured decorations which intended to draw attention to the issue of government. A year later in 2014, Gibson released the Government Series II[89] of guitars, which were essentially the same as the first series, only finished in a new color: "government tan".

In 2021, Gibson acquired the iconic electric guitar amplifier brand, Mesa Boogie.[90][91]

Factories[edit]

Interior of Gibson, Inc. factory on Parsons Street. 1936

All Gibson-brand guitars are currently made at three facilities, depending on the type of guitar. Solid body electric guitars such as the Gibson Les Paul and the Gibson SG are made in Nashville, Tennessee at Gibson USA and the Gibson Custom Shop. Semi-acoustic guitars such as the Gibson ES Series were made in Memphis, Tennessee at Gibson USA. Full acoustic guitars such as the Gibson J Series are made in Bozeman, Montana. The Nashville and Bozeman facilities are off-limits to visitors. As of March 2021, Gibson has started working on 25,000 sq. ft. expansion of the Bozeman facility.[92]

All Gibson instruments are made in USA. Below are some of the facilities used to produce Gibson instruments, along with years of their operation:

Address Years of Operation Notes
114 So. Burdick, Kalamazoo, MI. 1896–1897 This was the "business location" of "O. H. Gibson, Manufacturer, Musical Instruments."[93]
104 East Main, Kalamazoo, MI 1899–1902 This was Orville Gibson's residence, and he built instruments on the 2nd floor of this location.[93][94]
114 East Main, Kalamazoo, MI 1902–1906 The "Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Co, Ltd." was established in 1902.[93] This building, said to be infested with cockroaches, was probably the former Witmer Bakery.
114 East Exchange Place, Kalamazoo, MI 1906–1911 Located quite close to the previous location, in Kalamazoo's business district.
521–523 East Harrison Court, Kalamazoo, MI 1911–1917 Located about .5 miles from previous location. The building was next to the Michigan Central Railroad, and stood for many decades, until it came down in the late 20th century.
225 Parsons St, Kalamazoo, MI, 49007 1917–1984 Also located next to railroad tracks, this facility had major expansions in 1945, 1950, and 1960.[98] Various brands were produced there, including Gibson, Epiphone, (1957–1970)[99][100] and Kalamazoo. During the depression of the 1930s, children's toys were produced there, and during WW2 it produced materials to support the war effort in addition to producing guitars.[101] Between 1974 and 1984 Gibson moved its manufacturing out of this facility to Tennessee. Most of this move happened in 1974, leaving only acoustic and some semi-acoustic production for this plant.[102] In 1985, Heritage Guitars began production, renting part of this facility.[103]
416 East Ranson, Kalamazoo, MI 1962–? Located six blocks south of 224 Parsons St., according to Julius Bellson's book, this building housed the Gibson Electronics Division.[104] The building is still standing as of 2020.
Corner of Fulford and Alcott, Kalamazoo, MI 1964–1970 Located on the east side of Kalamazoo, according to Julius Bellson's book, this 60,000 sq. ft. building known as Plant 3 was the home of amplifier production, the String Division and pick-up production from 1964–1970.[104] The building is still standing as of 2020.
521–523 East Harrison Court, Kalamazoo, MI 1911–1917 Located about .5 miles from previous location. The building was next to the Michigan Central Railroad, and stood for many decades, until it came down in the late 20th century.
641 Massman Drive, Nashville, TN, 37210 1984–present This is Gibson's facility for production of their main solid body models, such as the Les Paul and the SG.
145 Lt. George W. Lee Av, Memphis, TN 38103 2000–2018 This was Gibson's facility for production of their semi-hollowbody electric guitars. This facility shared the same building as Gibson's Retail Shop and Beale Street "Showcase" location.[105]
1894 Orville Way, Bozeman, MT, 59715 1989[106]– present This facility is dedicated to acoustic guitar production.

See also[edit]

[edit]

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References[edit]

  • Achard, Ken (1989). The History and Development of the American Guitar. Westport, CT: Bold Strummer Ltd. ISBN .
  • Bacon, Tony (2002). 50 Years of the Gibson Les Paul. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN .
  • Bacon, Tony (2009). The Les Paul Guitar Book: A Complete History of Gibson Les Paul Guitars. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN .
  • Bacon, Tony (2011). Flying V, Explorer, Firebird: An Odd-shaped History of Gibson's Weird Electric Guitars. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN .
  • Bacon, Tony (2012). The History of the American Guitar: From 1833 to the Present Day. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN .
  • Bacon, Tony (2014). Sunburst: How the Gibson Les Paul Standard Became a Legendary Guitar. Montclair: Backbeat Books. ISBN .
  • Bellson, Julius (1973). The Gibson Story. US: self-published.[ISBN missing]
  • Bonds, Ray (2004). The Illustrated Directory of Guitars. New York: Barnes and Noble. ISBN .
  • Carter, Walter (1994). Gibson Guitars: 100 Years of an American Icon. Los Angeles: General Publishing Group. ISBN .
  • Carter, Walter (2007). Gibson Electric Guitar Book – Seventy Years of Classic Guitars. Backbeat Books: New York. ISBN .
  • Day, Paul; Carter, Walter; Hunter, Dave; Verheyen, Carl (2011). The Ultimate Gibson Guitar Book. New York: Metro Books. ISBN .
  • Duchossoir, A. R. (1998). Gibson Electrics: The Classic Years. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN .
  • Duchossoir, A. R. (2008). Guitar Identification: A Reference for Dating Guitars made by Fender, Gibson, Gretsch, and Martin (4th ed.). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN .
  • Duchossoir, A. R. (2009). Gibson Electric Steel Guitars: 1935–1967. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN .
  • Erlewine, Dan; Whitford, Eldon; Vinopal, David (2009). Gibson's Fabulous Flat-top Guitars: An Illustrated History & Guide. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN .
  • Fjestad, Zachary R.; Meiners, Larry (2007). Gibson Flying V. Minneapolis, MN: Blue Book Publications. ISBN .
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibson

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