Scholastic civil war

Scholastic civil war DEFAULT


How do you engage students in an event that happened more than a hundred years ago? Reenact the Civil War with this easy-to-implement, weeklong simulation. Students assume the roles of Union and Confederate soldiers and discover what it's like to live in an encampment, march into war, and fight for their beliefs. Includes step-by-step directions, plus reproducible student worksheets, charts, maps, and rubrics.

How do you engage students in an event that happened more than a hundred years ago? Reenact the Civil War with this easy-to-implement, weeklong simulation. Students assume the roles of Union and Confederate soldiers and discover what it's like to live in an encampment, march into war, and fight for their beliefs. Includes step-by-step directions, plus reproducible student worksheets, charts, maps, and rubrics.

Product Details

  • Item #:NTS527729
  • ISBN13:9780545277297
  • Format:eBook
  • File Format:pdf
  • Grades:5 and up

Easy Simulations: Civil War




Lesson Plan: The Civil War: 10 Things You Should Know (and Probably Don’t)


Assign sections (introduction and 10 items), then read the article aloud together as a class. After each section, pause and discuss. Ask: Why might the editors think this is something you should know?


Have students write their answers to each question, or use these prompts to guide a discussion.

  • MAKE INFERENCES: What was shocking about the first Battle of Bull Run?
    (see #3: The defeat of the Union army stunned everyone. It indicated that the war would last longer and be rougher than expected.)

  • CLOSE READING: Why did the Emancipation Proclamation free very few slaves at first?
    (see #4: It applied only to slaves in the 11 states that had seceded, not to all parts of the country where people were enslaved.)

  • CAUSE AND EFFECT: What was the cause of two-thirds of deaths during the Civil War? "
    (see #5: communicable diseases)

  • EXPLICIT INFORMATION: What was Reconstruction?
    (see #10: a period of reintegrating the rebellious Southern states into the Union after the Civil War)
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Spying on the South

Mary Richards’s heart was pounding. She raised her fist to rap on the door of the mansion. For several seconds, everything was silent. Then the door began to creak open. Her next mission was about to begin.

Throughout much of the Civil War (1861-65), Richards had been spying on the enemy: the Southern Confederacy. Aiding the Union Army was dangerous anywhere in the South, but especially in the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, where she lived. Now, in August 1864, she was about to enter a very dangerous place, the White House of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.

Spying for the North was especially meaningful for Richards. She was black and had been born enslaved in Richmond. The 24-year-old would do anything she could to help the Union forces win the war.

Gaining entrance to the enemy’s headquarters was going to be tricky. When the door to the house opened, she pretended to be a washerwoman and asked if the household had any laundry. After being told to wait, Richards found herself in a room that appeared to be Davis’s study. Quickly, she began searching the drawers of a cabinet for any information that might help the Union Army.

Scholastic Civil War and Census
The issue of slavery was present in national politics from the very beginning of the nation. In 1820 it was the subject of the Missouri Compromise, a measure enacted by Congress to prohibit slavery north of the state of Missouri. In the 1850s the slavery issue further divided the nation along regional lines. For the most part, however, both proslavery and antislavery positions included antiblack attitudes. Except for the abolitionists, most Northern opinion was more concerned with the dangers slavery posed to free labor than with the moral issue regarding the violation of the human rights of those held as slaves.

When the South seceded (1860-61) because of the dangers to slavery it perceived in Lincoln's election, the North declared that it was not slavery but the act of secession that precipitated the Civil War. President Lincoln supported a Constitutional amendment that would have given federal protection to slavery in the Southern states. On his order slaves who escaped into the Union lines were returned to their owners by federal troops early in the war.

Later, as the cost of the war in men and materials mounted and national support for abolition grew, President Lincoln shifted his position. In 1862 his Emancipation Proclamation declared slaves to be free if the areas in which they were held were still in revolt against the Union on Jan. 1, 1863. Slaves within the Union and in areas of the Confederacy under Union control, however, were initially excluded from the provisions of the proclamation. Thus at its inception, the proclamation functioned principally as military propaganda: slaves were declared free only in those areas where no real authority existed to free them. In those areas under federal authority, no action was taken. Nevertheless, the Emancipation Proclamation represented a point of no return on the issue of slavery.

As the war moved into various parts of the South, the actions of African Americans demonstrated the falsehood of the Southern claim of a satisfied slave population. Information and provisions were turned over to the Union troops, and slaves fled into the lines of approaching Union armies in such numbers as to create logistical problems. Letters and diaries of slave owners and their families contain frequent references to increased difficulty in controlling slaves as the fighting neared.

Beginning in 1862, provisions were made for enlisting blacks into the Union army. They were organized into all-black units referred to as the U.S. Colored Troops. Of the 209,000 blacks who entered service, 93,000 came from Confederate states. Units composed of soldiers from this area included the 1st and 3d Louisiana Native Guard and the 1st South Carolina Volunteers. The Confederacy at first refused to recognize blacks as soldiers. Unlike other Union troops who were captured, black soldiers were at first not allowed to surrender, and many were shot. The most infamous of such occurrences was at Fort Pillow, which fell to Confederate troops under Gen. Nathan B. Forrest (later a founder of the Ku Klux Klan).

African Americans took part in more than 200 battles and skirmishes. In all, 68,178 died in battle or as the result of wounds or disease during the war. Lower pay for blacks and other forms of discrimination were common. In spite of this, desertion among blacks was more than 50% lower than for the Union army as a whole.


Civil war scholastic

The Civil War

With Lincoln’s election on November 6, 1860, South Carolina had had enough. On December 20, the state repealed its ratification of the U.S. Constitution and left the Union. By Lincoln’s inauguration, in March 1861, six other states had followed suit.

Congress had looked for ways to pacify the South. Days before Lincoln was sworn in, it passed a proposed 13th Amendment to the Constitution that would have permanently protected slavery from government control. But when Confederate guns fired their first shots at Fort Sumter on April 12, the proposed amendment was as good as dead. In the end, the 13th Amendment that the U.S. did add to the Constitution, in 1865, abolished slavery.

When war broke out, the eight other states that allowed slavery debated what to do. But when Lincoln called for troops to quell the rebellion, four of them (including Virginia, the largest) voted to join the Confederacy. The others—the “border states” of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri—remained in the Union.

History of the Civil Rights Movement

Eighty-five years after the United States declared its independence, the country was at war again. This time, Americans were not fighting foreigners, they were fighting each other, North versus South. The American Civil War lasted four years, from 1861 to 1865, and killed more American soldiers - both Union and Confederate - than would die in the two world wars combined. What happened to the United States to make them fight?

One of the most significant issues was the economic split between the North and the South. In the early 1800s the Northern states, especially those in New England, turned from farming to manufacturing. But in the South, farming remained the most important way of life. Southern planters found cotton and tobacco to be their most profitable crops, and they farmed large areas of land in order to meet the demand for these goods. This system was profitable because of slave labor. Southern plantations used African-American slaves as a huge and cheap labor force. In the North, people began to regard slavery as wrong, and abolitionists, anti-slavery reformers, began to preach against the evils of slavery. The South felt that their way of life was being threatened.

As America expanded west, the issue of whether slavery should be allowed in the new territories grew heated. Many Northerners were opposed to expansion of slavery. Abolitionists wanted to end slavery throughout the entire country. They considered the practice evil and contrary to the ideals of democracy.

In addition to the conflict over slavery, many Southern states believed that the laws of the individual states should overrule the laws of the federal, or national, government. These Southerners didn't want the federal government to interfere in their state affairs. They believed that the states reserved the right to reject any federal laws they did not like.

The turning point was the 1860 presidential election. The Republican Party picked Abraham Lincoln as its candidate for president. Lincoln was not an abolitionist but he had spoken against the spread of slavery into the territories, which meant the South considered him an enemy. Leading Southerners announced that they would demand secession from the Union if Lincoln won the election. Lincoln did win the election on November 6, 1860, and a month later, South Carolina seceded from the United States. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed South Carolina in leaving the Union. The Civil War had begun.

Originally, the North began the war to preserve the Union, not to end slavery. But President Lincoln eventually became convinced that emancipation, granting freedom to slaves, was necessary to win the war. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation at the beginning of 1863, after which the Union considered all slaves in the Confederacy to be free.

The Civil War lasted until 1865 and was finally won by the North after a terrible cost in lives on both sides - including the life of President Lincoln. As the North celebrated its victory, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer.

Following the Civil War, three amendments to the U.S. Constitution (13, 14, and 15) were ratified to outlaw slavery and to guarantee citizenship and voting rights to all Americans, specifically the recently freed slaves. Many of the problems involving states' rights were also put to rest, as the federal government emerged as the supreme authority in the United States. In addition, before the Civil War the development of industry and transportation had been slow. But during the grim years of the war, American industry had learned new ways of manufacturing and had developed more efficient methods of transporting people and supplies.

Nevertheless, many new problems surfaced. The Southern economy, which had been almost entirely based on agriculture, had collapsed. The war had destroyed the plantations and ruined much of the farmland. Many Southern cities and towns had also been destroyed, and the people of the South were desperately poor. Second, at the end of the war, the Southern states found themselves without governments. These states had to be re-admitted to the Union, but they could not rejoin the United States until they had established legal state governments. Finally, 4 million former slaves had to start new lives as free people.

Read the diaries of Amelia, a lighthouse keeper; Clotee, a slave girl; Emma Simpson, a Southern girl; and Patsy, a freed slave, to learn what life was like for these young people in these chaotic and bloody times.

Civil War Timeline

1850: Compromise of 1850 effected between antislavery and proslavery factions. It brought California into the union as a free state while Texas was admitted as a slave state. It also abolished the slave trade from the District of Columbia, though it was still legal to own slaves there. The compromise also states that New Mexico and Utah would decide for themselves on whether they would be slave or free states when they joined the Union. Finally, a new fugitive slave law made it a crime for anyone to help an escaped slave.1854: Republican Party formed.1856: Civil war in Kansas over slavery issue.1857: Dred Scott decision by Supreme Court legalizes slavery in U.S. territories.1858: Senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas debate slavery in Illinois.1859: Abolitionist John Brown leads raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, and is hanged..1860: Lincoln elected president. South Carolina secedes from Union1861: Civil War begins with firing on Fort Sumter in South Carolina.1863: Emancipation Proclamation issued.Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg.1864: Sherman's army marches to the sea in Georgia.1865: Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox, Virginia. Lincoln assassinated; Andrew Johnson succeeds him as President. 13th Amendment, prohibiting slavery, ratified


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