Compact, later mid-size sport utility vehicle manufactured by Toyota
The Toyota 4Runner is a compact, later mid-size sport utility vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and sold throughout the world from 1984 to the present. In Japan, it is known as the Toyota Hilux Surf (Japanese: トヨタ・ハイラックスサーフ, Toyota Hairakkususāfu) which was withdrawn from the market in 2009. The original 4Runner was a compact SUV and little more than a Toyota pickup truck with a fiberglass shell over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a cross between a compact and a mid-size SUV. All 4Runners have been built in Japan at Toyota's plant in Tahara, Aichi, or at the Hino Motors (a Toyota subsidiary) plant in Hamura.
The name '4Runner' was created by a copywriter named Robert Nathan who was working for the advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi. The agency held contests to invent new vehicle names before the introduction of new Toyota models. The name 4Runner was created as a play on the term "forerunner," since the sport utility vehicle was the first of its kind for Toyota with an emphasis on its 4x4 capability and seating for four.
For Southeast Asia the Hilux Surf was replaced in 2005 by the similar Fortuner, which is based on the Hilux platform.
As of 2021[update], the 4Runner is sold in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, the United States and Venezuela.
The 4Runner came in at number five in a 2019 study by iSeeCars.com ranking the longest-lasting vehicles in the US. The 4Runner had 3.9 percent of vehicles over 200,000 miles (320,000 km), according to the study.
Predecessor: Toyota Trekker (1981–1983)
The Trekker was one of the first prototype walk through conversions done to Toyota trucks in the early 1980s. They were similar to the successive 4Runner conversions done by Toyota, which started production in 1984, but were designed and built by Winnebago Industries with the approval of Toyota. The Trekker was no longer viable when Toyota started producing the 4Runner in 1984, having in essence acted as a marketing test vehicle for that vehicle.
The Trekker was produced from early 1981 through 1983. The Trekkers were all built on the short wheelbase Hilux chassis. All of the Trekkers were classified as SR5 by both Winnebago and Toyota, regardless of the actual VIN denotation. Originally there were to be a SR5 and Deluxe version of the Trekker, one with vented windows and one without. All 1981 Trekkers had vented canopy windows. Non-vented canopy windows were not installed on the Trekker until the 1982 model year. Unvented windows were installed due to leaking issues of a forward facing vent on the 1981 Trekkers canopy windows rather than the equipment level.
Toyota shipped all trucks from Japan as cab and chassis in order to avoid the 25% assembled truck customs tax. The trucks destined for production as Trekkers were shipped to the dealership handling the national distribution of the Trekker. From there they went to Winnebago to have the Trekker conversion installed, returned after completion to the dealership for national distribution. Most of the Trekker conversions sold went to the west coast of the United States.
The Trekker conversion consisted of a fiberglass tub, bed sides, a non-removable canopy and rear hatch. The kit included a folding rear seat that could be folded forward to lay flat and add cargo space to the back. There was no tailgate on the Trekkers. The factory Toyota vinyl cab headliner was replaced and matched to the custom rear canopy headliner.
About 1500 of the Trekkers were built and sold in the United States. An additional unknown number of Trekker kits, likely less than 200, were shipped to Canada to be installed on Canadian trucks at the dealerships. 20 to 30 of the Trekker kits were sold and shipped to Saudi Arabia for installation.
First generation (N60; 1984)
|First generation (N60)|
|Production||October 1983 – August 1989|
|Assembly||Japan: Tahara, Aichi|
|Body style||3-door wagon|
|Wheelbase||103.0 in (2,616 mm)|
|Length||174.6 in (4,435 mm)|
|Width||66.5 in (1,689 mm)|
|Height||66.1 in (1,679 mm)|
|Curb weight||3,520–3,760 lb (1,597–1,706 kg) (approx.)|
For the first generation N60 series Hilux Surf and export specification 4Runner introduced in 1983, Toyota, instead of developing an entirely new model, modified the existing Hilux (N50/N60/N70) with short-bed pickup body. The Hilux had undergone a major redesign in 1983 for the 1984 model year. Changes included the removal of the panel with integrated rear window from behind the front seats, the addition of rear seats, and a removable fiberglass canopy. The implementation was borrowed from both the second generation Ford Bronco, and the Chevrolet K5 Blazer, both short-bed trucks with removable fiberglass shells over the rear sections and having bench seats installed in the back. Like the Bronco and the Blazer, the Hilux Surf/4Runner also did not have a wall attached to the front section behind front seats as the regular Hilux did. In that sense, all three vehicles were more than simply conventional pickup trucks with a fiberglass shell included.
1987–1989 Toyota 4Runner SR5 (Australia)
1987–1989 Toyota Hilux Surf
1985 Toyota 4Runner with the rear canopy removed
Thus, the first generation is nearly mechanically identical to the Toyota Hilux. All first generation 4Runners had two doors and were indistinguishable from the pickups from the dashboard forward. Nearly all changes were to the latter half of the body; in fact, because the rear springs were not upgraded to bear the additional weight from the rear seats and fiberglass top, these early models tended to suffer from a sagging rear suspension.
In North America, they were sold from the 1984½ model year from May 1984. For this first year (March to July 1984 production), all models were equipped with black or white fiberglass tops. An SR5 trim package was offered that upgraded the interior: additional gauges, better fabrics, and a rear seat were standard with the package. All 1984 models were equipped with the carbureted 2.4 L 22R engine and were all available with a four-wheel-drive system that drove the front wheels through a solid front axle.
1985 (August 1984 production) saw the arrival of the electronically fuel-injected 2.4 L 22R-E (and 22R-EC with California emissions controls) I4 engine. This upped the horsepower numbers from 100 hp for the 22R, to 116 hp for the 22R-E Engine, though the carbureted engine remained available until 1988. Additionally, rear seats were available in all 1985 4Runner trim levels, not just the more upscale SR5.
In 1986, the Surf/4Runner underwent a major front suspension design change as it was changed from a solid front axle to the Hi-Trac independent front suspension. Track width was also increased by three inches. These changes made the trucks more comfortable on-road, and improved stability and handling. The new suspension also increased the space in the engine compartment (necessary to fit larger engines, such as the V6 introduced in 1987) but arguably decreased the truck's off-road capabilities. The North American specification Toyota Pickup also adopted this new suspension, but the regular Hilux for other markets at this point retained the more rugged and capable, if less refined, solid axle configuration. With the 1986 update, the Surf/4Runner grille changed from the three segment type to the two segment grille. Tops were color-matched on blue, red and some gold models, while other body colors were still sold with black or white tops.
A turbocharged version of the 22R-E engine (the 22R-TE) was also introduced in 1986, although this engine is significantly rarer than the base 22R-E. It appears that all turbocharged 4Runner models sold in the US were equipped with an automatic transmission, though a five-speed manual could still be ordered in the turbocharged pickups. Most turbocharged 4Runners were equipped with the SR5 package, and all turbo trucks had as standard a heavier rear differential later used in the V6 model. Low-option models had a small light in the gauge cluster to indicate turbo boost, while more plush vehicles were equipped with an all-digital gauge cluster that included a boost gauge. Turbocharged and naturally aspirated diesel engines were also available in the pickups at this time as well, but it appears that no diesel-powered 4Runners were imported to the United States.
During 1984 to 1986 many 4Runners were imported to the US without rear seats. With only two seats the vehicle could be classified as a truck (rather than a sport vehicle) and could skirt the higher customs duties placed upon sport and pleasure vehicles. Most had aftermarket seats and seat belts added by North American dealers after they were imported.
In 1988, the 22R-E engine was joined by an optional 3.0 L V6 engine, the 3VZ-E. This engine was significantly larger and more powerful although not as reliable as the original 4-cylinder offering. Trucks sold with the V6 engine were equipped with the same heavy duty rear differential that was used in the turbocharged trucks, as well as a completely new transmission and transfer case; the transfer case was chain driven, although considered less rugged, created less cab noise than the old gear-driven unit used behind the four-cylinder engine.
An engine which was not used in the US market and rarely in the Japanese domestic market pickups was the 3Y engine, which was used in place of the 22R engine in New Zealand models, followed more rarely by the 4Y 2.2 L gasoline in later versions. This was a decision by Toyota New Zealand to reduce parts required to be stocked by dealers as no other Toyotas sold in New Zealand at the time utilised the R series engines.
Small cosmetic and option changes were made in 1988 for the 1989 model year, but the model was left largely untouched in anticipation of the replacement model then undergoing final development.
Second generation (N120/N130; 1989)
|Second generation (N120/N130)|
|Production||August 1989 – August 1995|
|Wheelbase||103.3 in (2,624 mm)|
|Length||176.0–176.8 in (4,470–4,491 mm)|
|Width||66.5 in (1,689 mm)|
|Height||66.1 in (1,679 mm)|
|Curb weight||3,760 lb (1,706 kg) (approx.)|
|Successor||Toyota Hilux Sport Rider (Southeast Asia)|
1990–1991 Toyota 4Runner V6 with two-door bodywork (VZN130; US)
1992–1995 Toyota 4Runner (US; facelift)
1991–1996 Toyota 4Runner (LN130R; Australia)
Toyota Hilux Surf (KZN130G; Japan)
Toyota issued a second generation of Hilux Surf and 4Runner in 1989 for the 1990 model year. Known as the N120/N130 series, these models continued their reliance on the Hilux pickup as a basis. It represented a fundamental departure from the first generation model. Instead of an enhanced pickup truck with fiberglass cap, the new 4Runners featured a freshly designed, full steel integrated body mounted on the existing frame. However, the 4Runner did remain virtually identical to the Hilux from the B-pillars forward. It also gained an all new coil spring rear suspension system, which unfortunately proved to be just as prone to sagging as the leaf springs on the rear of the previous models.
Nearly all second generation 4Runners were four-door models; however, from launch in 1989 to May 1993, a two-door model was also produced. These models are similar to the four-door models of the time in that the bodies were formed as a single unit, instead of the fiberglass tops used in the first generation 4Runners. Two-door cars of the second generation are extremely rare. US sales ended in August 1992, but it continued to be available in the Canadian market through 1993, and Japan until May 1993.
Because the drive train was still developed from the same source, the available engines and drivetrains were identical to the corresponding Hilux. The new 4Runner used the independent front suspension that had been developed on the previous generation. The older style gear driven transfer case was phased out on the V6 models and they now had a chain driven case. The older gear driven case was retained on the 4-cylinder models.
The Hilux Surf version for the Japanese market was also available with a range of diesel engines, including a 2.4 L turbodiesel2L-TE I4 up to 1993, followed by a 3.0 L turbodiesel 1KZ-TE I4. Small numbers were also made with a normally aspirated 2.8 L diesel 3L I4, a 2.0 L 3Y I4 naturally aspirated gasoline engine, and 2.4 L 22R-E I4 gasoline engine. The majority of gasoline versions of the Hilux Surf received the 3.0 L V6. Various trim levels were offered in Japan ranging from the base model 'SSR' through 'SSR Ltd', 'SSR-V' 'SSR-X' and 'SSR-X Ltd' to the range topping 'SSR-G'.
Most other full-body SUVs produced at the time (e.g. Nissan Pathfinder, Ford Explorer) featured tailgates that opened upward with the glass closed. In contrast, the second generation 4Runner carried over the retractable-glass tailgate from the first generation. Opening these tailgates requires first retracting the rear window into the tailgate and then lowering the tailgate much like as on a pickup truck.
In 1991 for the 1992 model year, the 4Runner received minor cosmetic updates, including one-piece front bumpers and modular headlamps instead of the increasingly outdated rectangular sealed beams. This facelift distanced the 4Runner somewhat from the Hilux pickups which did not receive the same cosmetic changes. At this time a wide-body version was introduced featuring extended wheel arch flares along with wider wheels and tires.
Additional cosmetic changes occurred between 1993 and 1995, the last year of the second generation.
The first and second generation 4Runners were both targeted as unsafe SUVs. 1980s and early-1990s crash regulations in the United States were not very strict for light trucks, and all early model 4Runners were fitted with doors that offered little protection in the event of a side collision. In most areas, there was little more than two pieces of sheet-metal and the window to keep incoming vehicles from impacting passengers. The crash test rating for the second generation 4Runner was one star for the driver's side in a frontal collision while the passenger side received a 4-star rating. Later, more strict crash regulations mandated doors that offered as much protection as passenger doors. In the United States, the 1994 and 1995 model years added side-impact beams in the doors.
Airbags for both the driver and passenger were added in 1995 (1996 model year).
Third generation (N180; 1995)
|Third generation (N180)|
|Production||August 1995 – August 2002|
|Assembly||Japan: Tahara, Aichi; Hamura, Tokyo|
|Body style||5-door SUV|
|Wheelbase||105.3 in (2,675 mm)|
|Curb weight||3,930 lb (1,783 kg) (approx.)|
Developed under chief Masaaki Ishiko from 1990 to 1995 under the project code 185T, in late 1995 (for the 1996 model year) a significant redesign of the 4Runner was introduced, with an all-new body shell on an all-new chassis. Though it shared many parts, including engine and transmission, with the new Tacoma, the body and chassis were unique for the first time. Despite moving upmarket with the rest of the mid-size SUV market, the new 4Runner differentiated itself by retaining the rugged off-road character its competitors were sacrificing for highway comfort.
The third generation 4Runner featured new engines shared with the first generation Toyota Tacoma pickup trucks:
- 2.7L 3RZ-FE I4 replacing the previous 2.4L 22R-E I4; 150 hp (110 kW) max horsepower at 4800 rpm (an increase of 38 hp (28 kW)), and 177 lb⋅ft (240 N⋅m) max torque at 4000 rpm (an increase of 35 lb⋅ft (47 N⋅m));
- 3.4L 5VZ-FE V6 replacing the previous 3.0L 3VZ-E V6; 183 hp (136 kW) horsepower at 4800 rpm (an increase of 33 hp (25 kW)), and 217 lb⋅ft (294 N⋅m) max torque at 3600 rpm (an increase of 37 lb⋅ft (50 N⋅m)).
Original placard describing the operation of the Toyota rear electronic locker in a 1997 Toyota 4Runner
1998–2000 Toyota Hilux Surf Sports Runner (Japan)
2000–2002 Toyota Hilux Surf (Japan)
In 1996, the 4Runner was dropped from sale in the UK, to be replaced by the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado, which was badged as the Toyota Land Cruiser Colorado.
Significant changes from the second generation models include a larger body on a longer wheelbase, increased interior space, increased cargo space, dual airbags, ABS, lift-up tailgate, coil-spring suspension all around, rack and pinion steering, and aerodynamic contour designed glass headlights. Additionally, Hilux Surf versions immediately moved to 16-inch wheels and gained a center differential, enabling the use of four-wheel drive on hard surfaces without complication for the first time. The prior system was retained to give on-the-fly shifting between rear- and four-wheel drive as before. The new 4Runner was also available with a factory installed selectable electric locker in the rear differential, a first for the 4Runner but available since 1993 in the Toyota Land Cruiser.
The 1997 model year received a few minor updates, including the addition of a color keyed cargo cover.
The 1998 model year remained largely unchanged, save for a few changes in the electronics. More ergonomic switch control panels and a newly designed 4 spoke steering wheel, which also necessitated a redesign of the airbag system.
For the 1999 model year, there were both major cosmetic and interior enhancements. A new "fat lip" bumper was designed to allow for an extended crush zone on the front of the frame, as well as new multi-parabola style headlights, projector style fog lamps, and updated side marker lights and front turn signals. Vehicles with "Limited" and "Highlander" (later called "Sport Edition") trim received color-keyed running boards, front and rear bumpers, mud flaps and flares. The ergonomics of the interior was completely changed, moving all the controls to the center of the dash for the rear window, and defrost, it also received a new instrument panel with a digital odometer. The Limited trucks also received a brand-new electronic temp control, and upgraded stereo. The multimatic transmission became available as an option for 4WD 4Runners for 1999, giving the option of AWD operation.
The 2001 model year received new transparent tail lights and new front grille design. The wheels were also changed to a five-spoke design rim. Limited models received newly designed five spoke wheels as well, however different from SR5 and base model. Also included was a new, sleeker side view mirror design. SR5 and base model 4Runners also have redesigned climate control units utilizing 3 knobs and 2 buttons, contrary to the 1999 model's 2 sliders and 2 knobs. 2001 models were equipped with Vehicle Stability Control standard, and 4WD models came standard with the multimatic transmission. The optional e-locker for the rear differential was dropped in 2001.
The 2002 model year can be distinguished from the rear by their chromed lift gate exterior trim that encompasses the license plate.
Fourth generation (N210; 2002)
|Fourth generation (N210)|
|Production||August 2002 – 28 August 2009|
|Assembly||Japan: Tahara, Aichi; Hamura, Tokyo|
|Body style||5-door SUV|
|Wheelbase||109.8 in (2,789 mm)|
|Curb weight||4,280 lb (1,941 kg) (approx.)|
The fourth-generation 4Runner incorporated serious changes to the chassis and body of the vehicle, but was targeted at approximately the same demographics as the third generation. Based on the Land Cruiser Prado 120 series, the new 4Runner retained the same basic exterior styling themes, and was still marketed as a mid-size semi-luxury SUV with off-road capabilities. Available trims were the SR5, Sport Edition, and Limited models. An all-new LEV certified 4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 which produces 245 hp (183 kW) and 282 lb⋅ft (382 N⋅m) of torque is standard, but for the first time, a V8 became available, the ULEV certified 4.7 L 2UZ-FE engine which in the US produced 235 hp (175 kW) and 320 lb⋅ft (434 N⋅m). In 2004, for the 2005 model year, the addition of VVT-i increased output to 268 hp (200 kW) and 315 lb⋅ft (427 N⋅m). Fuel economy is estimated at 17 mpg city, 20 mpg highway for the V6 and 15/19 mpg for the V8. Towing capacity is 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) on V6 models and 7,300 lb (3,300 kg) on RWD V8 models (7000 pounds w/4WD). The 4Runner first entered dealer showrooms in October 2002 for the 2003 model year. Three trims levels were offered, SR5, Sport Edition, and Limited. When it was first introduced the SR5 and Sport Edition models used gray plastic cladding and bumpers. Sport models also featured a non-functional hood scoop.
The front suspension used a double wishbone while the rear is a solid rear axle type. The 4runner continued to use a body on frame construction design and a solid rear axle for strength and durability compromising interior room and on-road handling. Toyota's other mid-size SUV, the Highlander is a crossover which is not designed for off-roading. The optional 4WD systems were full-time on V8 models while "Multi-Mode" or part-time on V6 models, both systems used a lockable Torsen center differential. A new suspension system, X-Relative Absorber System (X-REAS), became standard on the Sport Edition and optional for SR5 and Limited models, a rear auto-leveling height adjustable air suspension is sometimes included with this option on Limited models. The X-REAS system links the dampers diagonally by means of hydraulic hoses and fluid using a mechanical center valve which reduces body roll during hard cornering. All 4runners were equipped with skid plates for the engine, transfer case, and fuel tank to prevent damage during off-roading. The Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC) system prevents the 4runner from rolling backwards on inclines and a Downhill Assist Control (DAC, 4WD only) modulates the brakes and throttle automatically without driver inputs for smooth hill descents at very low speeds, both electronic aids are standard on 4WD models.
Major standard features included a tilt and telescoping steering wheel, remote keyless entry, single zone automatic climate control, power driver's lumbar support, power rear tailgate window, and on V8 models a tow hitch receiver bolted directly to the rear frame crossmember. Options included HomeLink, an electrochromic auto-dimming rearview mirror, power moonroof, third row seating, a DVD-based navigation system (loses in-dash CD changer), a 10-speaker JBL Synthesis stereo, and rear seat audio. An optional backup camera system on Limited models used two cameras mounted on the interiors D-pillars to give a wider view when backing up. Some trim levels get two mirrors mounted on the interior D-pillars just inside the rear hatch.
In 2009 with the end of this generation, Toyota Japan ceased production of the Hilux Surf, leaving only the 4Runner available in the subsequent model series.
All 4Runners came with Toyota's Star Safety System which includes anti-lock brakes, electronic brakeforce distribution, brake assist, traction control and Vehicle Stability Control. Side torso airbags for the front rows as well as side curtain airbags for the front and rear rows were optional on 2003–2007 models and became standard on 2008 models.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety rated the 4Runner as "Good" overall in the frontal offset crash test, "Good" overall in the side impact test on vehicles with side airbags, and the 4Runner received a "Poor" rating for rear impact protection. An IIHS report published in April 2007 shows the 4Runner has one of the lowest death rates for all vehicles on the road at only 13 deaths per million registered vehicle years for the 2003 and 2004 model years. Only the Chevrolet Astro, Infiniti G35, and BMW 7 series had lower death rates.
- In early 2003, Toyota added an optional Appearance Package for the SR5 model that included color-keyed cladding, bumpers, and liftgate trim. In April 2003, Toyota made the Appearance Package, along with the previously optional fog lamps, running boards, and 16-inch aluminum wheels, standard on the SR5. The Sport Edition also added black running boards and color-keyed trim, replacing the grey cladding and silver-painted grille, door handles and liftgate trim.
- In late 2003 (for the 2004 model year), a Tire Pressure Monitoring System was added as standard equipment. A 3rd row seat became optional on the SR5 and Limited models.
- In 2004 (for the 2005 model year) enhancements were brought to the optional V8 engine and a 5-speed automatic was made standard on the V6 model. Slight changes were made to the exterior including color-keyed bumper trim (replacing the silver painted trim on all colors except Dorado Gold) on the SR5 and Limited; a chrome grille on the SR5; a black roof-rack and running boards (replacing silver) on the Limited; and a redesigned rear spoiler. A Salsa Red Pearl scheme was also introduced for all trim levels, although a similar color scheme was available for third generation models.
- 2005 (for the 2006 model year) marked the fourth generation's mid-cycle refresh. The changes included revised front and rear bumpers; a reworked grille; new projector-beam headlamps and LED tail lamps; additional chrome trim on the SR5 model; and a smoked-chrome grille with tubular roof-rack and step bars on the Sport Edition. The revised front bumper features circular fog lights and a relocation of the turn-signals to the headlamp assembly. The redesigned bumper eliminates the rear bumper reflectors. MP3 playback capability and an auxiliary input jack were added to all audio systems. In addition, the Limited model was further differentiated from the other trim levels with the addition of unique 18" wheels and a seat memory system. Shadow Mica was added as a color option. Late in this period, the 1GR-FE V6 engine received a modification to allow for an improved head gasket design which resolved a common head gasket failure.
- In 2006 (for the 2007 model year), the 4Runner remained unchanged.
- In 2007 (for the 2008 model year), the 4Runner received standard rollover sensing side curtain airbags and front row side torso airbags, a switch to disable Vehicle Stability Control, slightly modified front grille design, refinements in the Tire Pressure Monitoring System, and some changes in the seatbelt warning system and brake system control. An Urban Runner Package was also available on the Sport Edition V6 4x4, which added an in dash Tom Tom navigation system, Alcantara inserts in both the front and back seats with dark leather bolstering, the 18" Limited style wheels, a color-keyed front grill and a double-decker cargo system.
- In 2008 (for the 2009 model year) the 4Runner remained unchanged. A Trail Edition package offered an electronic locking rear differential, a switch to enable/disable Advanced Traction Control (A-TRAC) and Bilstein dampers.
Later models offered a DVD Rear Seat Entertainment System (RSES) which used a nine-inch LCD screen and two wireless headphones.
Fifth generation (N280; 2009)
|Fifth generation (N280)|
|Production||August 2009 – present|
|Assembly||Japan: Tahara, Aichi (Tahara plant)|
|Designer||Koichi Suga (2007)|
|Body style||5-door SUV|
|Wheelbase||109.8 in (2,789 mm)|
|Length||189.9–191.3 in (4,823–4,859 mm)|
|Width||75.8 in (1,925 mm)|
|Height||70.7 in (1,796 mm)|
|Curb weight||4,400–4,805 lb (1,996–2,180 kg)|
The fifth generation 4Runner was unveiled at the State Fair of Texas on September 24, 2009. It is available in 3 trim levels, 2 of which were available previously. The base SR5 trim as well as the top-of-the-line Limited trim are available as a 2WD or a 4WD. The new Trail Edition is only available as a 4WD. The SR5 and Trail Edition 4WDs will receive a part-time 4WD drive system, while the Limited will have full-time 4WD. All models will come with A-TRAC. The new Trail Edition offers Toyota's Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS) and Crawl Control which had previously only been available to premium Toyota vehicles, as well as a rear locking differential like the previous Trail Package. Production started on 31 August 2009.
The 4.0-liter V6 adds Dual VVT-i which improves horsepower, torque and fuel economy, and comes standard in all models. A 2.7-liter I4 was available on 2WD models, but was discontinued after the 2010 model year. The 4.7-liter V8 from the previous generation was not carried over to the fifth generation 4Runner. The 4Runner is built on the same platform as the FJ Cruiser.
In 2013 (for the 2014 model year), the 4Runner received a facelift, consisting of revised front and rear fascia with projector headlamps and clear-lensed, LED tail-lamps, as well as other minor exterior cosmetic changes. The interior was also updated, with soft-touch door trim, leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift knob, revised dashboard and center stack, and the inclusion of Toyota's Optitron instrument cluster as standard across all trim levels. Brake lines were upgraded for improved pedal feel, and electronic Trailer Sway Control programming included. No driveline changes were made. All 2014 model year 4Runner models are powered by a 4.0-liter V-6 engine with intelligent Variable Valve Timing (VVT-i) that can develop 201 kW (270 bhp) and 377 N⋅m (278 ft⋅lb) of torque. It is mated to a five-speed automatic ECT transmission.
In 2014 (for the 2015 model year) the TRD Pro trim level was introduced in the United States, with Toyota badging on the front as well as an off-road package as part of the TRD Pro Series. The TRD Pro 4Runner included TRD Bilstein shocks with remote reservoirs, TRD-tuned front springs and TRD front skid plate. For each model year of the TRD Pro, beyond the two colors available on all trims, the TRD Pro is available in an exclusive color. This was 'Inferno Orange' for the 2015 model year, 'Quicksand' for 2016, 'Cement' for 2017, 'Cavalry Blue' for 2018, 'Voodoo Blue' for 2019, 'Army Green' for 2020, 'Lunar Rock' for 2021, and 'Lime Rush' for 2022. All United States models received the Entune touchscreen infotainment system with a 6.1-inch display and a rear backup camera as standard equipment, with optional GPS navigation, SiriusXMSatellite Radio, HD Radio, and Safety Connect. Only the Limited model featured a standard JBL premium amplified audio system.
In 2016 (for the 2017 model year), the 4Runner Trail and Trail Premium were renamed to TRD Off-Road and TRD Off-Road Premium in the United States. These trim levels share the same mechanical functionality of the former Trail edition, but add aesthetic differences and TRD badging to differentiate themselves from the base model. They do not share the same suspension as the TRD Pro model.
In 2018 (for the 2019 model year), Toyota began offering a 'Nightshade' package based on the Limited trim which blacks out badging, lower front and rear fascia, wheels, and portions of the interior.
In 2019 (for the 2020 model year), Toyota announced that all 4Runner trims will receive Toyota Safety Sense-P (TSS-P) standard as well as two additional rear seat USB ports. The TRD Pro will have an updated grille design to accommodate the front radar sensor for TSS-P. All United States models received an updated Entune 3.0 infotainment system with a larger, higher-resolution touchscreen display, Apple CarPlay and Android Autosmartphone integration and Amazon Alexa integration, 4GLTE internet access powered by Verizon Wireless, Safety Connect, and standard SiriusXMSatellite Radio and optional HD Radio. The TRD Pro model receives a JBL premium amplified audio system as standard equipment. The system was previously only available on Limited models, where it remains standard equipment. Most models also feature standard GPS navigation.
In 2021 (for the 2022 model year), Toyota included their smart key system with push button as standard for all trims. The new TRD Sport trim was also added into the lineup. The TRD Sport received the same bumper, 20" wheels and the X-REAS suspension from the Limited. It also includes TRD parts such as the TRD shifter, TRD hood with scoop, TRD badges, and Softex seats with TRD lettering. Unlike the Limited, it is available only with 2WD or part-time 4WD. Toyota added LED foglights, lowbeams and highbeam headlights as standard for all trims for the first time. Blind spot monitor and rear cross traffic alert were added as standard for most trims. The TRD Pro now gets standard multi-terrain monitor. Using strategically placed cameras, the system lets the driver check surroundings on the trail, with the ability to spot potential obstacles not easily seen from the cabin. The Limited trim adds a standard Panoramic View Monitor, which is similar to the multi-terrain monitor on the TRD Pro. The Limited grade and TRD models also add a premium Multi-Information Display. All trims receives rear occupancy alert as standard. Lime Rush is the new exclusive paint for the 2022 model year TRD Pro.
Toyota 4Runner SR5, rear view
2014 4Runner Limited (GRN280L)
2019 4Runner SR5 (GRN280L)
2019 4Runner SR5 (GRN280L)
|Moderate overlap frontal offset||Good|
|Small overlap frontal offset (2014–present)||Marginal1|
- 1vehicle structure rated "Poor"
- 2strength-to-weight ratio: 4.11
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Limited V8 4x4
2003 Toyota 4Runner Specs
|Front head room||40 "|
|Rear head room||39 "|
|Front shoulder room||58 "|
|Rear shoulder room||57 "|
|Front hip room||55 "|
|Rear hip room||55 "|
|Front leg room||41.7 "|
|Rear leg room||34.7 "|
|Luggage capacity||40.6 cu.ft.|
|Maximum cargo capacity||72.4 cu.ft.|
|Body width||73.8 "|
|Body height||71.6 "|
|Ground clearance||9.1 "|
|Gross weight||5,510 lbs.|
|Fuel tank capacity||23.0 gal.|
|EPA mileage estimates||15 City / 19 Hwy|
|Base engine size||4.7 liters|
|Base engine type||V-8|
|Maximum towing capacity||5,000 lbs.|
|Turning radius||18.3 ''|
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The Toyota 4Runner has an almost legendary reputation for reliability, especially within Consumer Reports. Models regularly see 200,000 or more miles, due in part to the SUV’s old-school design. While the off-road-focused TRD Pro models command a premium, many fairly-new 4Runners can be bought for under $20,000. However, as with the Toyota Tacoma, there are a few chinks in the 4Runner’s reliability history. Those shopping for a used Toyota 4Runner should avoid the 2003 model year in particular.
The #1 reason you should avoid the 2003 Toyota 4Runner: rust
CarComplaints.com ranks the 2003 Toyota 4Runner as the worst model year in the site’s records. That’s mostly due to the sheer volume of 2003 4Runner rust issues. In fact, it’s CarComplaints.com’s #1 Toyota 4Runner problem over every model year.
Running any vehicle, SUV or not, in snowy conditions—especially in places where the roads are salted—can raise the risk of rust. But, with regular washes and care, it’s not necessarily something to worry about. But with the 2003 4Runner, that’s another story.
Owners have reported holes in the frame, entire welds and even transmission mounts rusted away. Reading through the complaints, “unsafe to drive” appears over and over again. CarComplaints.com claims the average repair cost is $1400, but some owners have quoted repair bills as high as $15,000. The site also reported that the complains were so numerous and severe, that the NHTSA had opened an official investigation. As of writing, the investigation is currently pending.
This wouldn’t be the first time Toyota had rust issues. The Tacoma, Tundra, and Sequoia were all part of a lawsuit that led to Toyota the vehicles’ rusted frames. The model years ranged from 2005-2010, making the 2003 4Runner’s rust issues oddly coincidental. And according to Forbes, 4Runner owners are gearing up for their own class-action lawsuit.
Other problems with the 2003 Toyota 4Runner
The excessive rust issue with the 2003 Toyota 4Runner is by far the most dangerous and expensive problem, but that isn’t this model year’s only one.
CarComplaints.com also reports issues with the 2003 Toyota 4Runner’s brakes. Owners complained of brakes failing, and front calipers locking up. Consumer Reports also reported numerous complaints of’03 4Runners with seized-up front calipers, with the problem returning even after the calipers had been replaced or serviced. This is the #3 issue with the 2003 Toyota 4Runner on CarComplaints.com.
Something that would appear merely a minor headache, but could actually be much worse, was the 2003 Toyota 4Runner’s #2 issue: cracked and melting dashboards. ToyotaProblems.com reports the issue is worse in areas of high humidity and heat. Although, CarComplaints.com lists one owner claiming to live on a tropical island, whose 4Runner’s dash only cracked after the windows were tinted. UV exposure, then, appears to not be the only cause.
The cracks weren’t the only cosmetic or structural issue. Dashboards would melt, and ooze some kind of sticky goo. In addition to potentially blinding drivers from the shine, owners were worried the airbags would be affected by the melted plastic. The problem got so bad, Toyota-4Runner.org reports, Toyota issued a recall.
Other problematic Toyota 4Runner model years
The dashboard recall didn’t only pertain to the 2003 Toyota 4Runner. The 2004 and 2005 MY 4Runners were also included in this recall. In fact, a cracked and melted dashboard is the most common 2004 Toyota 4Runner complaint.
The 2004 and 2005 4Runners also experienced many of the same issues as the 2003 model. Not just excessive rust, but also failing clear coat and fading paint, too. Again, problems the 2007 Tacoma also experienced. The ’04 and ’05 4Runners also had similar front brake caliper issues, with one Toyota-4Runner.org forum member claiming to be on their 3rd set.
According to CarComplaints.com, the 2004 Toyota 4Runner actually has more complaints than the 2003 model, but the ’03 model’s problems are more severe and expensive. In addition to all the other issues, Consumer Reports ranked the 2004 4Runner low in engine and exhaust reliability, because of how frequently owners had to replace catalytic converters and oxygen sensors.
Have these issues been resolved?
Yes, it appears so. Although the 2003 Toyota 4Runner’s rust issues are the #1 problem on CarComplaints.com, the #2 issue comes from the 2015 model’s use of Takata airbags. Those have been recalled, and are not solely a Toyota issue, but an industry issue.
Another such issue is the 2016 4Runner’s seemingly rodent-attracting wiring. CarComplaints lists it as the #3 4Runner problem, with one owner claiming rodents are attracted to the SUV’s soy-based wiring. Although The Drive reported that, yes, Toyota used soy-based wiring in its vehicles, the company claimed such wiring isn’t inherently more appealing to rodents. And much like the Takata airbags, Toyota isn’t the only automaker to use this kind of wiring.
From the November 2002 issue of Car and Driver.
According to Toyota senior vice-president and general manager Don Esmond, mid-size SUVs now account for 10 percent of all vehicles sold in the U.S and are the biggest sellers in the SUV category.
So it doesn't seem unreasonable for Toyota to have two players in that category: the Highlander, which is a car-based monocoque vehicle, and the 4Runner, which is a body-on-frame vehicle with truck DNA and better off-road potential.
The 4Runner got here first, having played the market for 18 years in three successive generations. Make that four. The new 4Runner is here as a 2003 model, and it's bigger, heavier, and more powerful than ever before.
Seeking improvements in comfort, on- and off-road handling, safety, performance, and economy, Toyota has completely reinvented the 4Runner. Based on the Prado (a sort-of seven-eighths-scale Land Cruiser not sold in this country) rather than the Tacoma, the new vehicle has a wheelbase that is 4.5 inches longer (109.8 inches), as well as an equal increase in overall length (now 187.8 inches).
Highs: Solid build, good refinement, plenty of power.
Accordingly, the stretched 4Runner offers two more inches of front legroom. There's 0.4 inch more headroom, and the outboard passengers sit two inches farther apart in an interior that's now four inches wider.
Under the more-spacious bodywork is a new frame with full-length box-section rails and nine fully welded crossmembers. The front crossmember is mounted low enough to engage the bumpers and crash systems of smaller vehicles, and "soft" front-end sheetmetal and a plastic grille are intended to reduce injury to pedestrians.
Two engines are offered in two- and four-wheel-drive configurations. A new 4.0-liter V-6 is now the base motivation for the 4Runner, developing 245 horsepower at 5200 rpm and a hefty 283 pound-feet of torque at 3400 rpm. As well as being Toyota's first aluminum truck engine, the 1GR-FE (as it's known internally) is the product of 3-D engine-modeling techniques and features chain-driven camshafts, variable valve timing with intelligence, and variable intake geometry.
The upscale engine is a 4.7-liter V-8 related to the i-Force mill found in the Sequoia, Tundra, and Land Cruiser. In this guise it produces 235 horsepower at 4800 rpm and 320 pound-feet of torque at 3400 rpm. As you can see from the numbers, the V-6 has more horsepower, but the V-8 has more torque, and it's delivered across a very broad rev range.
Thus, our V-8-powered 4Runner SR5 test car purred to 60 mph in just eight seconds--no mean feat for a two-plus-ton SUV with full-time four-wheel drive. We'll have to wait until we test the V-6 model before we'll know whether it can duplicate that achievement. Clearly, though, power isn't a problem in the new 4Runner.
Nor is driveline refinement. The 4Runner shifted smoothly and elegantly in every situation through the five ratios of its new automatic transmission. Selecting low range with the dash-mounted rotary switch--also used in the part-time system on V-6 models to shift from two- to four-wheel drive--was equally transparent.
Lows: A little heavy for serious off-roading, intrusive stability-control systems.
The transfer case in both engine variants uses a lockable Torsen center differential and in normal operating circumstances has a rear-wheel torque bias (the planetary gearing splits torque 40/60 front to rear). It can increase rearward torque distribution up to 70 percent when needed, or send up to 53 percent forward when the rears lose grip.
Combined with a control-arm front suspension and a solid rear axle located by four trailing links and a Panhard rod, the 4Runner's off-road arsenal looks pretty convincing. And assisting the usual four-wheel-drive traction hardware are two electronic strategies intended to optimize off-road performance. One is Hill-start Assist Control (HAC), a kind of stability-control offshoot that applies brakes and manages torque for tricky uphill launches. The other is Downhill Assist Control (DAC), which works only in low range at an initial speed less than 18 mph when the driver has his feet off the pedals, to maintain a target forward speed of 2 to 4 mph.
Here's the "grade" strategy for the new 4Runner: three trim levels, with either a V-6 or V-8 engine and optional four-wheel drive that is part-time on V-6 vehicles and full-time when teamed with the V-8. The lowest grade is the SR5, which comes with gray-metallic bumpers, lower cladding, and 16-inch steel wheels (alloys are optional) with 265/70R-16 tires. Figure $26,000 to open. Next up is the Sport model, which is pretty much like the SR5 but has a silver-colored grille and roof rails; a hood scoop; fog lamps; color-keyed, heated outside mirrors; and six-spoke, 17-inch alloy wheels with 65-series rubber. Expect to pay at least $33,000 for a Sport.
The top-of-the-line model is the Limited, with color-keyed bumpers and cladding; illuminated running boards; and five-spoke, 17-inch alloys. The 4Runner interiors vary little from grade to grade, but Sport and Limited variants get leather-wrapped steering wheels with audio and cruise controls. The Limited is also fitted with an anti-theft engine immobilizer, a HomeLink transmitter, silver-colored trim in various places, power-adjustable heated front seats, dual-zone climate controls, and a novel double-decker shelf in the cargo compartment for more efficient storage. Loaded up, the Limited should top out at about $40,000.
An option we have not yet mentioned is the X-Relative Absorber System (X-REAS) that is standard for the Sport model and available as an option on the Limited. We like this one. It's an installation that links diagonally opposed front and rear shock absorbers via a nitrogen-charged center damper as in Audi's RS 6. The effect is much like that of the diagonal jacking systems found in CART race cars, and it provides additional roll and pitch damping to such an extent that a 4Runner equipped with X-REAS steers into bends with a discernible lack of roll motions.
Despite its greater size and mass, this largish SUV steers precisely, with no corruption of the line from bump steer, roll steer, or any other shifts in geometry. It eases into bends with nicely cushioned body motions and takes a set that a driver can lean on with real confidence. A new hollow steering rack contributes to the plot with smooth and accurate responses.
No wonder the VSC is so cautious. Relying on feedback alone, a 4Runner driver would soon be exploiting the full handling envelope on the basis of this sense of stability. X-REAS can be coupled with an optional rear air suspension (available only on V-8 Limited 4Runners) that replaces the steel coils with reinforced air bladders. These provide automatic load leveling, a switch-selected ride-height increase (up to 1.5 inches) for rough going, and about three-quarters of an inch of height reduction for loading or trailer hauling. Consistent with the 4Runner's heritage of off-road capability, ground clearance is listed at 9.1 inches.
The Verdict: If you build 'em bigger, they will apparently keep coming.
Toyota's professed ambitions for the 4Runner were to improve roadgoing stability and comfort without compromising the off-road potential that many consumers treasure, while upgrading the power, space, and safety of the vehicle. In its attempt to do so, the company has added about 350 pounds to the 4Runner. That may be regrettable, but the new 4Runners are nonetheless better in every way than their predecessors. What's 350 pounds between friends, anyway?
2003 Toyota 4Runner SR5 V-8 4WD
Front-engine, 4-wheel-drive, 5-passenger, 5-door wagon
PRICE AS TESTED
$134,235 (C/D est.)
DOHC 32-valve V-8, iron block and aluminum heads, port fuel injection
285 in3, 4664 cm3
235 hp @ 4800 rpm
320 lb-ft @ 3400 rpm
Suspension (F/R): independent, unequal-length control arms, coil springs, anti-roll bar/rigid axle located by 4 trailing links and a Panhard rod, coil springs, anti-roll bar
Brakes (F/R): 12.6-in vented disc/12.3-in vented disc
Tires: Bridgestone Dueler H/T 689, P265/70TR-16
Wheelbase: 109.8 in
Length: 187.8 in
Width: 73.8 in
Height: 71.2 in
Cargo volume: 42 ft3
Curb weight: 4450 lb
C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 8.0 sec
100 mph: 28.1 sec
Street start, 5–60 mph: 8.2 sec
Top gear, 30–50 mph: 2.9 sec
Top gear, 50–70 mph: 5.5 sec
1/4 mile: 16.4 sec @ 84 mph
Top speed (governor limited): 116 mph
Braking, 70–0 mph: 190 ft
Roadholding, 300-ft-dia skidpad: 0.71 g
EPA FUEL ECONOMY
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Runner 03 four
It is an all new model for U.S., Japan, & Export Markets. Related to the Land Cruiser Prado not previously offered in the U.S. This platform will be shared with the new Lexus GX470. Remains body on frame construction but severs the connection with the Tacoma truck line.
For 2003, the 183hp 3.4L V6 has been replaced by a new 4.0L V6, while an optional 4.7L V8 has been added. The 4.0L V6 is an all new engine design that incorporates some firsts for a Toyota truck. It's the company's first all-aluminum truck engine, the first truck engine to make use of Toyota's Variable Valve Timing with intelligence (VVT-i) and the first Toyota truck engine to employ a variable intake manifold. The results are impressive: 245 horsepower at 5,200 rpm and 283 pound-feet of torque at 3,400 rpm. All V6-equipped models retain the same 4-speed automatic transmission used on the previous model. The engine is also LEV-certified and boasts significantly reduced amounts of lead to make it more recyclable in the future.
The Land Cruiser's 4.7-liter dohc I-Force V8, 235hp 320 lb torque, is a first time 4Runner option. Debuting in the Tundra pickup in 2000, the iForce V8 has gained a reputation as one of the smoothest, most refined eight-cylinders ever to grace the engine bay of a pickup. The introduction of an all new 5-speed automatic transmission is another first for a Toyota truck.
All 4-wheel-drive units boast a full-time 2-speed transfer case with a Torsen sensing-type limited slip center differential. With a normal 40/60 torque split front to rear, in slippery conditions a maximum of 70% goes to the rear, or up to 53% to the front. Traction control and Vehicle Stability Control are standard on all models. Also standard are Toyota's Downhill Assist Control, and Hill-start Assist Control, which use the throttle and brakes to improve stability and reduce slippage on loose surfaces.
The wheelbase is increased by 4.5", to 109.8". Overall length is 187.8" also a 4.5" increase. The new 4Runner is 5.7" wider at 73.8". Height (with Rack) is 71.2". Weight comes in at 4025-4450lbs. In back, the 60/40 split seat offers increased head, shoulder and hip room. No third seat is offered. According to Toyota representatives, the typical 4Runner buyer isn't looking for a family vehicle as much as he is a capable sport-utility, so the third-row seat option was reserved for the Lexus GX470. 4Runner cargo space has decreased by 2.4 cubic-feet, to 42.2 with the rear seat up. With the seats folded, maximum available cargo space is 75.1, down 4.7 cubic-feet. Hard core off-roaders take note, that the maximum ground clearance is now just 9.1" which is 2" less than the previous model.
There are three distinct trim levels. All trim levels offer both two or four-wheel drive and either the V6 or V8 power plants. The SR5 continues as the entry-level model, and the Limited remains the top-of-the-line version. The Sport Edition slots between the two.
EPA fuel economy numbers have increased, the V6 model registering 18 city/21 highway in 2-wheel-drive models, and 17 city/20 highway when equipped with 4-wheel- drive. Base stickers will range from $27,500 for an SR5 4X2, to $37,000 for a Limited 4X4.
Colors available for 4Runner are Natural White, Titanium Metallic, Galactic Gray Mica, Black, Impulse Red pearl, Dorado Gold Pearl, Imperial Jade Mica, Stratosphere Mica, and Pacific Blue Metallic. The Sport Package is only available in the following colors; Titanium Metallic, Galactic Gray Mica, Black, Imperial Jade Mica and Stratosphere Mica. Exterior colors are coordinated with Stone and Taupe interior colors in fabric or leather-trim.
Standard Equipment on the SR5 includes...
Standard Equipment on the Sport Edition includes...
Standard Equipment on the Limited...
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc., reported 2003 4Runner total calendar year-end sales of 109,308 units, up 41.9% from prior year.
2003 Product Introduction (PDF)
2003 Standard Equipment, Optional Equipment and Specifications brochure (PDF)
2003 Full Standard Equipment Listing (PDF)
2003 Full Option Listing (PDF)
2003 Full Technical Specifications (PDF)
2003 Toyota 4Runner
2003 Toyota 4Runner
2003 Toyota 4Runner
|2003 Global Extremes Toyota 4Runner|
Be Smart, Check in Advance. CARFAX — Your Vehicle History.
CARFAX — Your Vehicle History Expert
Sometimes what you don't know can't hurt you, but that's not the case when buying a used car. As an independent vehicle history provider, at CARFAX we've made it our mission to tell you everything you need to know by uncovering as many events as possible from the previous life of a used car. Our primary goal is to help you get to know your next car from the inside out before deciding to make an investment that will be part of you and your family's everyday life. We believe your next car shouldn't be hiding anything from you.
CARFAX Vehicle History Reports contain over 28 billion historical records from 20 European countries, the US and Canada, which are updated daily with new information.
Even if you live in a country we don't collect vehicle data from, it's still always worth checking the Vehicle Identification Number without obligation. The used car import and export market is booming and many owners would be surprised to find out exactly what happened to their vehicle during its previous life abroad.
Privacy for Customers — Transparency over Vehicles
Let's be clear: Although we strive to find every detail of a vehicle's life so far, we are focused only on the vehicle's history, and do not collect any information on previous owners. The information we provide relates solely to the vehicle, its odometer reading, any accidents that have been covered up, where the vehicle comes from and much more — it never gets personal. We've uncovered irreparable damage several times in the past, but other times our vehicle history checks draw a blank — and sometimes that's actually a good thing.
Second Hand — Not Second Best
Did you know that considerably more used cars are sold than new cars? We think this second-hand system is nothing short of fantastic. However, it goes without saying that it gives rise to different methods and tactics: Some sellers will disguise a car that's been in an accident under a fresh coat of paint, tamper with the odometer or conceal theft. This is one of the less appealing aspects of buying second hand. Our goal is to establish trusting relationships between buyers and sellers, since this is the best way to help customers make the right decision. Your new car should be reliable and make you feel safe, as well as make you feel like you haven't paid too much.
But more than anything else, we don't want you or your family unknowingly sitting behind the wheel of a vehicle that isn't 100% safe. This is why we strive to take these vehicles off the road, which not only makes the used car market safer but our streets safer too.
CARFAX — 35+ Years of Experience in Vehicle Histories
CARFAX was founded in the US in 1984 and expanded into Europe in 2007. Around 100 team members spread across six European offices process vehicle information from 22 countries.
Fostering strategic partnerships with registration authorities, law enforcement agencies, government departments, insurance companies, inspection centers and numerous other leading companies around the world has enabled us to compile a unique international database for vehicle histories. We use this database to help make the used car market more transparent. We give everyone in the process of buying a used car access to what is currently the world's most comprehensive source for vehicle history reports, and is growing day by day.
We remain neutral and independent despite our partnerships — our sole purpose is help customers make an informed choice and ensure their safety and the safety of their family. This includes never collecting any personal details — we do not accept any PII from data sources amongst the information we provide about a vehicle. We ensure that data protection laws are observed at all times. Furthermore, we always collect our data in compliance with legal and regulatory frameworks — in all the countries in which we are active. We expressly distance ourselves from illegal activities such as data theft, scraping and hacking.
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He could pay off, right. What is the problem. And what happened.